Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, is highly aggressive and resistant to both chemo- and radiotherapy. It remains one of the most difficult-to-treat cancers, not only due to its unique pathobiological features such as stroma-rich desmoplastic tumors surrounded by hypovascular and hypoperfused vessels limiting the transport of therapeutic agents, but also due to problematic early detection, which renders most treatment options largely ineffective, resulting in extensive metastasis. To elevate therapeutic effectiveness of treatments and overt their toxicity, significant enthusiasm was generated to exploit new strategies for combating PDAC. Combination therapy targeting different barriers to mitigate delivery issues and reduce tumor recurrence and metastasis has demonstrated optimal outcomes in patients' survival and quality of life, providing possible approaches to overcome therapeutic challenges. This paper aims to provide an overview of currently explored multimodal therapies using either conventional therapy or nanomedicines along with rationale, up-to-date progress, as well as the key challenges that must be overcome. Understanding the future directions of the field may assist in the successful development of novel treatment strategies for enhancing therapeutic efficacy in PDAC.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2019|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine