Clozapine and olanzapine exhibit an intrinsic anxiolytic property in two conditioned fear paradigms: Contrast with haloperidol and chlordiazepoxide

Alexa Mead, Ming Li, Shitij Kapur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Psychotic fear and anxiety disturbances are seen at a relatively high frequency in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical anti-psychotics are believed to show superior efficacy in reducing these symptoms. However, clinical and preclinical evidence regarding their anxiolytic efficacy has been mixed. In this study, we evaluated the possible anxiolytic property of two atypicals clozapine and olanzapine and compared them with typical haloperidol and chlordiazepoxide (a prototype of sedative-anxiolytic drug) in two preclinical models of fear. In Experiment 1, we used a fear-induced passive avoidance and conditioned place aversion paradigm and examined the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip). In Experiments 2 and 3, we used a two-way active avoidance conditioning paradigm and further compared the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc), chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip) and three doses of olanzapine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, sc). Results show that clozapine and chlordiazepoxide, but not haloperidol, significantly attenuated the shock conditioning-induced place aversion, decreased the amount of defecations and the number of the 22-kHz vocalizations. Clozapine also reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia. Similar to clozapine, olanzapine also significantly decreased the amount of defecations and reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia, but it did not inhibit the 22-kHz vocalizations. This study demonstrates that clozapine and olanzapine possess an intrinsic anxiolytic property, which is not attributable to its superior anti-"psychotic" effect or its favorable effects on motor functions or learning and memory processes. These findings also suggest that the combined use of passive avoidance and active avoidance conditioning models can be useful in better differentiating typical and atypical anti-psychotics as well as anxiolytics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)551-562
Number of pages12
JournalPharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
Volume90
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2008

Fingerprint

olanzapine
Chlordiazepoxide
Clozapine
Anti-Anxiety Agents
Haloperidol
Fear
Shock
Induced Hyperthermia
Defecation
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Schizophrenia
Anxiety
Experiments

Keywords

  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Clozapine
  • Conditioned avoidance response
  • Conditioned place aversion
  • Haloperidol
  • Passive avoidance
  • Ultrasonic vocalizations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

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title = "Clozapine and olanzapine exhibit an intrinsic anxiolytic property in two conditioned fear paradigms: Contrast with haloperidol and chlordiazepoxide",
abstract = "Psychotic fear and anxiety disturbances are seen at a relatively high frequency in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical anti-psychotics are believed to show superior efficacy in reducing these symptoms. However, clinical and preclinical evidence regarding their anxiolytic efficacy has been mixed. In this study, we evaluated the possible anxiolytic property of two atypicals clozapine and olanzapine and compared them with typical haloperidol and chlordiazepoxide (a prototype of sedative-anxiolytic drug) in two preclinical models of fear. In Experiment 1, we used a fear-induced passive avoidance and conditioned place aversion paradigm and examined the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip). In Experiments 2 and 3, we used a two-way active avoidance conditioning paradigm and further compared the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc), chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip) and three doses of olanzapine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, sc). Results show that clozapine and chlordiazepoxide, but not haloperidol, significantly attenuated the shock conditioning-induced place aversion, decreased the amount of defecations and the number of the 22-kHz vocalizations. Clozapine also reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia. Similar to clozapine, olanzapine also significantly decreased the amount of defecations and reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia, but it did not inhibit the 22-kHz vocalizations. This study demonstrates that clozapine and olanzapine possess an intrinsic anxiolytic property, which is not attributable to its superior anti-{"}psychotic{"} effect or its favorable effects on motor functions or learning and memory processes. These findings also suggest that the combined use of passive avoidance and active avoidance conditioning models can be useful in better differentiating typical and atypical anti-psychotics as well as anxiolytics.",
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N2 - Psychotic fear and anxiety disturbances are seen at a relatively high frequency in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical anti-psychotics are believed to show superior efficacy in reducing these symptoms. However, clinical and preclinical evidence regarding their anxiolytic efficacy has been mixed. In this study, we evaluated the possible anxiolytic property of two atypicals clozapine and olanzapine and compared them with typical haloperidol and chlordiazepoxide (a prototype of sedative-anxiolytic drug) in two preclinical models of fear. In Experiment 1, we used a fear-induced passive avoidance and conditioned place aversion paradigm and examined the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip). In Experiments 2 and 3, we used a two-way active avoidance conditioning paradigm and further compared the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc), chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip) and three doses of olanzapine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, sc). Results show that clozapine and chlordiazepoxide, but not haloperidol, significantly attenuated the shock conditioning-induced place aversion, decreased the amount of defecations and the number of the 22-kHz vocalizations. Clozapine also reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia. Similar to clozapine, olanzapine also significantly decreased the amount of defecations and reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia, but it did not inhibit the 22-kHz vocalizations. This study demonstrates that clozapine and olanzapine possess an intrinsic anxiolytic property, which is not attributable to its superior anti-"psychotic" effect or its favorable effects on motor functions or learning and memory processes. These findings also suggest that the combined use of passive avoidance and active avoidance conditioning models can be useful in better differentiating typical and atypical anti-psychotics as well as anxiolytics.

AB - Psychotic fear and anxiety disturbances are seen at a relatively high frequency in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical anti-psychotics are believed to show superior efficacy in reducing these symptoms. However, clinical and preclinical evidence regarding their anxiolytic efficacy has been mixed. In this study, we evaluated the possible anxiolytic property of two atypicals clozapine and olanzapine and compared them with typical haloperidol and chlordiazepoxide (a prototype of sedative-anxiolytic drug) in two preclinical models of fear. In Experiment 1, we used a fear-induced passive avoidance and conditioned place aversion paradigm and examined the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip). In Experiments 2 and 3, we used a two-way active avoidance conditioning paradigm and further compared the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc), chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip) and three doses of olanzapine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, sc). Results show that clozapine and chlordiazepoxide, but not haloperidol, significantly attenuated the shock conditioning-induced place aversion, decreased the amount of defecations and the number of the 22-kHz vocalizations. Clozapine also reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia. Similar to clozapine, olanzapine also significantly decreased the amount of defecations and reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia, but it did not inhibit the 22-kHz vocalizations. This study demonstrates that clozapine and olanzapine possess an intrinsic anxiolytic property, which is not attributable to its superior anti-"psychotic" effect or its favorable effects on motor functions or learning and memory processes. These findings also suggest that the combined use of passive avoidance and active avoidance conditioning models can be useful in better differentiating typical and atypical anti-psychotics as well as anxiolytics.

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