Circulating Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide resets cardiac homeostasis in mice through a matrix metalloproteinase-9-dependent mechanism

Kristine Y. Deleon-Pennell, Lisandra E.de Castro Brás, Merry L. Lindsey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) circulates systemically in over 50% of periodontal disease (PD) patients and is associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. We hypothesized that low systemic Pg-LPS would stimulate an inflammatory response in the left ventricle (LV) through MMP-9, leading to a decrease in cardiac function. Wild-type (WT) and MMP-9 null mice (4–7 months old) were exposed for 1 or 28 days to low dose Pg-LPS or saline (n ≥ 6/group). MMP-9 significantly increased in WT mice LV at 1 and 28 days of exposure, compared to control (P < 0.05 for both). Fractional shortening decreased subtly yet significantly in WT mice by day 28 (31 ± 1%) compared to control (35 ± 1%; P < 0.05), and this decrease was attenuated in null (34 ± 1%) mice. Plasma cardiac troponin I levels were elevated in WT mice at day 28. Macrophage-related factors increased over twofold in WT plasma and LV after day 1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-5, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1γ, stem cell factor, Ccl12, Ccl9, Il8rb, Icam1, Itgb2, and Spp1; all P < 0.05), indicating a moderate inflammatory response. Levels returned to baseline by day 28, suggesting tolerance to Pg-LPS. In contrast, macrophage-related factors remained elevated in day 28 null mice, indicating a sustained defense against Pg-LPS stimulation. Consistent with these findings, LV macrophage numbers increased in both groups at day 1 and returned to baseline by day 28 in the WT mice only. Major histocompatibility complex (MCH) II remained elevated in the null group at day 28, confirming Pg-tolerance in the WT. Interestingly Il-1α, a regulator of macrophage immunosuppression, increased in the plasma of WT mice only on day 28, suggesting that Il-1α plays a role in tolerance in a MMP-9-dependent manner. In conclusion, circulating Pg-LPS induced tolerance in WT mice, resulting in significant LV changes and subtle cardiac dysfunction. MMP-9 played a major role in the regulation of chronic systemic inflammation and associated cardiac dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00079
JournalPhysiological Reports
Volume1
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

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Porphyromonas gingivalis
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Lipopolysaccharides
Homeostasis
Heart Ventricles
Macrophages
Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
Stem Cell Factor
Troponin I
Chemokine CCL2
Periodontal Diseases
Major Histocompatibility Complex
Immunosuppression
Inflammation

Keywords

  • Cardiac function
  • Inflammation
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-9
  • Periodontal disease
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Proteomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Circulating Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide resets cardiac homeostasis in mice through a matrix metalloproteinase-9-dependent mechanism. / Deleon-Pennell, Kristine Y.; Brás, Lisandra E.de Castro; Lindsey, Merry L.

In: Physiological Reports, Vol. 1, No. 5, e00079, 01.01.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) circulates systemically in over 50{\%} of periodontal disease (PD) patients and is associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. We hypothesized that low systemic Pg-LPS would stimulate an inflammatory response in the left ventricle (LV) through MMP-9, leading to a decrease in cardiac function. Wild-type (WT) and MMP-9 null mice (4–7 months old) were exposed for 1 or 28 days to low dose Pg-LPS or saline (n ≥ 6/group). MMP-9 significantly increased in WT mice LV at 1 and 28 days of exposure, compared to control (P < 0.05 for both). Fractional shortening decreased subtly yet significantly in WT mice by day 28 (31 ± 1{\%}) compared to control (35 ± 1{\%}; P < 0.05), and this decrease was attenuated in null (34 ± 1{\%}) mice. Plasma cardiac troponin I levels were elevated in WT mice at day 28. Macrophage-related factors increased over twofold in WT plasma and LV after day 1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-5, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1γ, stem cell factor, Ccl12, Ccl9, Il8rb, Icam1, Itgb2, and Spp1; all P < 0.05), indicating a moderate inflammatory response. Levels returned to baseline by day 28, suggesting tolerance to Pg-LPS. In contrast, macrophage-related factors remained elevated in day 28 null mice, indicating a sustained defense against Pg-LPS stimulation. Consistent with these findings, LV macrophage numbers increased in both groups at day 1 and returned to baseline by day 28 in the WT mice only. Major histocompatibility complex (MCH) II remained elevated in the null group at day 28, confirming Pg-tolerance in the WT. Interestingly Il-1α, a regulator of macrophage immunosuppression, increased in the plasma of WT mice only on day 28, suggesting that Il-1α plays a role in tolerance in a MMP-9-dependent manner. In conclusion, circulating Pg-LPS induced tolerance in WT mice, resulting in significant LV changes and subtle cardiac dysfunction. MMP-9 played a major role in the regulation of chronic systemic inflammation and associated cardiac dysfunction.",
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AU - Lindsey, Merry L.

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N2 - Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) circulates systemically in over 50% of periodontal disease (PD) patients and is associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. We hypothesized that low systemic Pg-LPS would stimulate an inflammatory response in the left ventricle (LV) through MMP-9, leading to a decrease in cardiac function. Wild-type (WT) and MMP-9 null mice (4–7 months old) were exposed for 1 or 28 days to low dose Pg-LPS or saline (n ≥ 6/group). MMP-9 significantly increased in WT mice LV at 1 and 28 days of exposure, compared to control (P < 0.05 for both). Fractional shortening decreased subtly yet significantly in WT mice by day 28 (31 ± 1%) compared to control (35 ± 1%; P < 0.05), and this decrease was attenuated in null (34 ± 1%) mice. Plasma cardiac troponin I levels were elevated in WT mice at day 28. Macrophage-related factors increased over twofold in WT plasma and LV after day 1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-5, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1γ, stem cell factor, Ccl12, Ccl9, Il8rb, Icam1, Itgb2, and Spp1; all P < 0.05), indicating a moderate inflammatory response. Levels returned to baseline by day 28, suggesting tolerance to Pg-LPS. In contrast, macrophage-related factors remained elevated in day 28 null mice, indicating a sustained defense against Pg-LPS stimulation. Consistent with these findings, LV macrophage numbers increased in both groups at day 1 and returned to baseline by day 28 in the WT mice only. Major histocompatibility complex (MCH) II remained elevated in the null group at day 28, confirming Pg-tolerance in the WT. Interestingly Il-1α, a regulator of macrophage immunosuppression, increased in the plasma of WT mice only on day 28, suggesting that Il-1α plays a role in tolerance in a MMP-9-dependent manner. In conclusion, circulating Pg-LPS induced tolerance in WT mice, resulting in significant LV changes and subtle cardiac dysfunction. MMP-9 played a major role in the regulation of chronic systemic inflammation and associated cardiac dysfunction.

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KW - Proteomics

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