Chloroviruses

James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Chloroviruses are large dsDNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain chlorella-like green algae; the algae are normally mutualistic endosymbionts of protists and metazoans and are often referred to as zoochlorellae. The viruses are ubiquitous in inland aqueous environments throughout the world and occasionally single types reach titers of thousands of plaque-forming units per ml of native water. The viruses are icosahedral in shape with a spike structure located at one of the vertices. They contain an internal membrane that is required for infectivity. The viral genomes are 290 to 370 kb in size, which encode up to 16 tRNAs and 330 to ~415 proteins, including many not previously seen in viruses. Examples include genes encoding DNA restriction and modification enzymes, hyaluronan and chitin biosynthetic enzymes, polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, ion channel and transport proteins, and enzymes involved in the glycan synthesis of the virus major capsid glycoproteins. The proteins encoded by many of these viruses are often the smallest or among the smallest proteins of their class. Consequently, some of the viral proteins are the subject of intensive biochemical and structural investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20
JournalViruses
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 23 2019

Fingerprint

Viruses
Enzymes
DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes
Chlorella
Chlorophyta
Proteins
Chitin
Viral Genome
Capsid
Ion Transport
Polyamines
Viral Proteins
Hyaluronic Acid
Transfer RNA
Ion Channels
Polysaccharides
Glycoproteins
Carrier Proteins
Membranes
Water

Keywords

  • Algal viruses
  • Chloroviruses
  • Giant viruses
  • NCLDVs
  • Phycodnaviridae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Van Etten, J. L., Agarkova, I. V., & Dunigan, D. D. (2019). Chloroviruses. Viruses, 12(1), [20]. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010020

Chloroviruses. / Van Etten, James L.; Agarkova, Irina V.; Dunigan, David D.

In: Viruses, Vol. 12, No. 1, 20, 23.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Van Etten, JL, Agarkova, IV & Dunigan, DD 2019, 'Chloroviruses', Viruses, vol. 12, no. 1, 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010020
Van Etten JL, Agarkova IV, Dunigan DD. Chloroviruses. Viruses. 2019 Dec 23;12(1). 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010020
Van Etten, James L. ; Agarkova, Irina V. ; Dunigan, David D. / Chloroviruses. In: Viruses. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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