Characterization of the fatty acid-responsive transcription factor FadR. Biochemical and genetic analyses of the native conformation and functional domains

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Abstract

In Escherichia coli, fatty acid synthesis and degradation are coordinately controlled at the level of transcription by FadR. FadR represses transcription of at least eight genes required for fatty acid transport and β-oxidation and activates transcription of at least two genes required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator of the ace-BAK operon encoding the glyoxylate shunt enzymes, IcIR. FadR-dependent DNA binding and transcriptional activation is prevented by long chain fatty acyl-CoA. In the present work, we provide physical and genetic evidence that FadR exists as a homodimer in solution and in rico. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation of the purified protein show that native FadR was a homodimer in solution with an apparent molecular mass of 53.5 and 57.8 kDa, respectively. Dominant negative mutations in fadR were generated by random and site-directed mutagenesis. Each mutation mapped to the amino terminus of the protein (residues 1-66) and resulted in a decrease in DNA binding in vitro. In an effort to separate domains of FadR required for DNA binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, chimeric protein fusions between the DNA binding domain of LexA and different regions of FadR were constructed. One fusion, LexA1-87-FadR102-239, was able to repress the LexA reporter sulA- lacZ, and β-galactosidase activities were derepressed by fatty acids, suggesting that the fusion protein had determinants both for dimerization and ligand binding. These studies support the conclusion that native FadR exists as a stable homo-dimer in solution and that determinants for DNA binding and acyl-CoA binding are found within the amino terminus and carboxyl terminus, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30645-30650
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume272
Issue number49
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 5 1997

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Conformations
Molecular Biology
Transcription Factors
Fatty Acids
Acyl Coenzyme A
Transcription
DNA
Fusion reactions
Dimerization
Genes
Galactosidases
Ligands
Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Mutagenesis
Mutation
Proteins
Gene encoding
Ultracentrifugation
Biosynthesis
Molecular mass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of the fatty acid-responsive transcription factor FadR. Biochemical and genetic analyses of the native conformation and functional domains",
abstract = "In Escherichia coli, fatty acid synthesis and degradation are coordinately controlled at the level of transcription by FadR. FadR represses transcription of at least eight genes required for fatty acid transport and β-oxidation and activates transcription of at least two genes required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator of the ace-BAK operon encoding the glyoxylate shunt enzymes, IcIR. FadR-dependent DNA binding and transcriptional activation is prevented by long chain fatty acyl-CoA. In the present work, we provide physical and genetic evidence that FadR exists as a homodimer in solution and in rico. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation of the purified protein show that native FadR was a homodimer in solution with an apparent molecular mass of 53.5 and 57.8 kDa, respectively. Dominant negative mutations in fadR were generated by random and site-directed mutagenesis. Each mutation mapped to the amino terminus of the protein (residues 1-66) and resulted in a decrease in DNA binding in vitro. In an effort to separate domains of FadR required for DNA binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, chimeric protein fusions between the DNA binding domain of LexA and different regions of FadR were constructed. One fusion, LexA1-87-FadR102-239, was able to repress the LexA reporter sulA- lacZ, and β-galactosidase activities were derepressed by fatty acids, suggesting that the fusion protein had determinants both for dimerization and ligand binding. These studies support the conclusion that native FadR exists as a stable homo-dimer in solution and that determinants for DNA binding and acyl-CoA binding are found within the amino terminus and carboxyl terminus, respectively.",
author = "Narayan Raman and Black, {Paul N.} and DiRusso, {Concetta C.}",
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T1 - Characterization of the fatty acid-responsive transcription factor FadR. Biochemical and genetic analyses of the native conformation and functional domains

AU - Raman, Narayan

AU - Black, Paul N.

AU - DiRusso, Concetta C.

PY - 1997/12/5

Y1 - 1997/12/5

N2 - In Escherichia coli, fatty acid synthesis and degradation are coordinately controlled at the level of transcription by FadR. FadR represses transcription of at least eight genes required for fatty acid transport and β-oxidation and activates transcription of at least two genes required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator of the ace-BAK operon encoding the glyoxylate shunt enzymes, IcIR. FadR-dependent DNA binding and transcriptional activation is prevented by long chain fatty acyl-CoA. In the present work, we provide physical and genetic evidence that FadR exists as a homodimer in solution and in rico. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation of the purified protein show that native FadR was a homodimer in solution with an apparent molecular mass of 53.5 and 57.8 kDa, respectively. Dominant negative mutations in fadR were generated by random and site-directed mutagenesis. Each mutation mapped to the amino terminus of the protein (residues 1-66) and resulted in a decrease in DNA binding in vitro. In an effort to separate domains of FadR required for DNA binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, chimeric protein fusions between the DNA binding domain of LexA and different regions of FadR were constructed. One fusion, LexA1-87-FadR102-239, was able to repress the LexA reporter sulA- lacZ, and β-galactosidase activities were derepressed by fatty acids, suggesting that the fusion protein had determinants both for dimerization and ligand binding. These studies support the conclusion that native FadR exists as a stable homo-dimer in solution and that determinants for DNA binding and acyl-CoA binding are found within the amino terminus and carboxyl terminus, respectively.

AB - In Escherichia coli, fatty acid synthesis and degradation are coordinately controlled at the level of transcription by FadR. FadR represses transcription of at least eight genes required for fatty acid transport and β-oxidation and activates transcription of at least two genes required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator of the ace-BAK operon encoding the glyoxylate shunt enzymes, IcIR. FadR-dependent DNA binding and transcriptional activation is prevented by long chain fatty acyl-CoA. In the present work, we provide physical and genetic evidence that FadR exists as a homodimer in solution and in rico. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation of the purified protein show that native FadR was a homodimer in solution with an apparent molecular mass of 53.5 and 57.8 kDa, respectively. Dominant negative mutations in fadR were generated by random and site-directed mutagenesis. Each mutation mapped to the amino terminus of the protein (residues 1-66) and resulted in a decrease in DNA binding in vitro. In an effort to separate domains of FadR required for DNA binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, chimeric protein fusions between the DNA binding domain of LexA and different regions of FadR were constructed. One fusion, LexA1-87-FadR102-239, was able to repress the LexA reporter sulA- lacZ, and β-galactosidase activities were derepressed by fatty acids, suggesting that the fusion protein had determinants both for dimerization and ligand binding. These studies support the conclusion that native FadR exists as a stable homo-dimer in solution and that determinants for DNA binding and acyl-CoA binding are found within the amino terminus and carboxyl terminus, respectively.

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