Characterization of protection against systemic infection and disease from experimental bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection by use of a modified-live noncytopathic type 1 vaccine in calves

Clayton L Kelling, Breck D. Hunsaker, David J Steffen, Christina L. Topliff, Kent M Eskridge

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Abstract

Objective - To evaluate protection resulting from use of a modified-live noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine against systemic infection and clinical disease in calves challenged with type 2 BVDV. Animals - 10 calves, 5 to 7 months of age. Procedures - Calves were allocated (n = 5/group) to be nonvaccinated or vaccinated SC on day 0 with BVDV 1 (WRL strain). Calves in both groups were challenged intranasally with BVDV type 2 isolate 890 on day 21. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs of disease were recorded daily, and total and differential WBC and platelet counts were performed. Histologic examinations and immunohistochemical analyses to detect lesions and distribution of viral antigens, respectively, were performed. Results - After challenge exposure to BVDV type 2, nonvaccinated calves developed high rectal temperatures, increased respiratory rates, viremia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and infection of the thymus. Vaccinated calves did not develop high rectal temperatures or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Vaccinated calves appeared to be protected against systemic replication of virus in that they did not develop leukopenia, lymphopenia, viremia, or infection of target organs, and infectious virus was not detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or the thymus. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The modified-live BVDV type 1 vaccine protected against systemic infection and disease after experimental challenge exposure with BVDV type 2. The vaccine protected calves against infection and viremia and prevented infection of target lymphoid cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)788-796
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume68
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2007

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Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2
Virus Diseases
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1
Vaccines
calves
vaccines
Viremia
Infection
infection
viremia
Lymphopenia
Leukopenia
Thymus Gland
leukopenia
Temperature
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Viral Antigens
Respiratory Rate
Virus Replication
Platelet Count

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of protection against systemic infection and disease from experimental bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection by use of a modified-live noncytopathic type 1 vaccine in calves",
abstract = "Objective - To evaluate protection resulting from use of a modified-live noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine against systemic infection and clinical disease in calves challenged with type 2 BVDV. Animals - 10 calves, 5 to 7 months of age. Procedures - Calves were allocated (n = 5/group) to be nonvaccinated or vaccinated SC on day 0 with BVDV 1 (WRL strain). Calves in both groups were challenged intranasally with BVDV type 2 isolate 890 on day 21. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs of disease were recorded daily, and total and differential WBC and platelet counts were performed. Histologic examinations and immunohistochemical analyses to detect lesions and distribution of viral antigens, respectively, were performed. Results - After challenge exposure to BVDV type 2, nonvaccinated calves developed high rectal temperatures, increased respiratory rates, viremia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and infection of the thymus. Vaccinated calves did not develop high rectal temperatures or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Vaccinated calves appeared to be protected against systemic replication of virus in that they did not develop leukopenia, lymphopenia, viremia, or infection of target organs, and infectious virus was not detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or the thymus. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The modified-live BVDV type 1 vaccine protected against systemic infection and disease after experimental challenge exposure with BVDV type 2. The vaccine protected calves against infection and viremia and prevented infection of target lymphoid cells.",
author = "Kelling, {Clayton L} and Hunsaker, {Breck D.} and Steffen, {David J} and Topliff, {Christina L.} and Eskridge, {Kent M}",
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T1 - Characterization of protection against systemic infection and disease from experimental bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection by use of a modified-live noncytopathic type 1 vaccine in calves

AU - Kelling, Clayton L

AU - Hunsaker, Breck D.

AU - Steffen, David J

AU - Topliff, Christina L.

AU - Eskridge, Kent M

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N2 - Objective - To evaluate protection resulting from use of a modified-live noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine against systemic infection and clinical disease in calves challenged with type 2 BVDV. Animals - 10 calves, 5 to 7 months of age. Procedures - Calves were allocated (n = 5/group) to be nonvaccinated or vaccinated SC on day 0 with BVDV 1 (WRL strain). Calves in both groups were challenged intranasally with BVDV type 2 isolate 890 on day 21. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs of disease were recorded daily, and total and differential WBC and platelet counts were performed. Histologic examinations and immunohistochemical analyses to detect lesions and distribution of viral antigens, respectively, were performed. Results - After challenge exposure to BVDV type 2, nonvaccinated calves developed high rectal temperatures, increased respiratory rates, viremia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and infection of the thymus. Vaccinated calves did not develop high rectal temperatures or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Vaccinated calves appeared to be protected against systemic replication of virus in that they did not develop leukopenia, lymphopenia, viremia, or infection of target organs, and infectious virus was not detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or the thymus. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The modified-live BVDV type 1 vaccine protected against systemic infection and disease after experimental challenge exposure with BVDV type 2. The vaccine protected calves against infection and viremia and prevented infection of target lymphoid cells.

AB - Objective - To evaluate protection resulting from use of a modified-live noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine against systemic infection and clinical disease in calves challenged with type 2 BVDV. Animals - 10 calves, 5 to 7 months of age. Procedures - Calves were allocated (n = 5/group) to be nonvaccinated or vaccinated SC on day 0 with BVDV 1 (WRL strain). Calves in both groups were challenged intranasally with BVDV type 2 isolate 890 on day 21. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs of disease were recorded daily, and total and differential WBC and platelet counts were performed. Histologic examinations and immunohistochemical analyses to detect lesions and distribution of viral antigens, respectively, were performed. Results - After challenge exposure to BVDV type 2, nonvaccinated calves developed high rectal temperatures, increased respiratory rates, viremia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and infection of the thymus. Vaccinated calves did not develop high rectal temperatures or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Vaccinated calves appeared to be protected against systemic replication of virus in that they did not develop leukopenia, lymphopenia, viremia, or infection of target organs, and infectious virus was not detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or the thymus. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The modified-live BVDV type 1 vaccine protected against systemic infection and disease after experimental challenge exposure with BVDV type 2. The vaccine protected calves against infection and viremia and prevented infection of target lymphoid cells.

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