The nutritional excellence of chicken egg is derived from its task as a life-giving medium, supplying the necessary nutrients to the hen's embryo while protecting it from external threats. Additionally, egg proteins possess unique biological activities above and beyond their known functional and nutritional roles. In the last few decades, extensive research has been done to evaluate the various biological activities of egg proteins and protein-derived peptides. Egg proteins and protein-derived peptides have been attributed to diverse biological activities, the most well-known being their antimicrobial properties. However, egg proteins and peptides have been shown to have other biological activities, such as antihypertensive, antioxidant, anticancer, immunomodulatory, and protease inhibitory activity. Egg-derived bioactive proteins have had a relevant scientific impact and exhibit promising applicability as an ingredient for the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. However, it is critical to understand the effects of these proteins in signaling pathways to delineate their molecular mechanisms of action. Further studies are required to fill the current knowledge gaps. Therefore, the purpose of the chapter is to illustrate the present knowledge of the bioactivity of different egg proteins and their physiological effects.