Cesium Titanium(IV) Bromide Thin Films Based Stable Lead-free Perovskite Solar Cells

Min Chen, Ming Gang Ju, Alexander D. Carl, Yingxia Zong, Ronald L. Grimm, Jiajun Gu, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhou, Nitin P. Padture

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Significant effort is being devoted to the search for all-inorganic Pb-free halide perovskites (HPs) for photovoltaic applications. However, candidate HPs that combine all the desirable attributes — ease of synthesis, favorable bandgaps, outstanding optoelectronic properties, high stability, no toxicity — are extremely rare. Here, we demonstrate experimentally the promise of cesium titanium(IV) bromide (Cs2TiBr6), a part of the Ti-based vacancy-ordered double-perovskite halides family, in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We show, for the first time, that high-quality Cs2TiBr6 thin films can be prepared through a facile low-temperature vapor-based method. These films exhibit a favorable bandgap of ∼1.8 eV, long and balanced carrier-diffusion lengths exceeding 100 nm, suitable energy levels, and superior intrinsic and environmental stability. The first demonstration of Cs2TiBr6 thin films-based PSCs shows stable efficiency of up to 3.3%. Insights into the Cs2TiBr6 film-formation mechanisms and the PSC device operation are provided, pointing to directions for improving Ti-based PSCs. Halide perovskites (HPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in the field of photovoltaics (PVs) in recent years. The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has seen an unprecedentedly rapid rise within a short period of time. However, the toxicity of Pb and the volatility of the organic ions in the state-of-the-art HP light absorbers have been recognized as the two major obstacles in the path of PSC development and commercialization. Thus, the search is on for all-inorganic, Pb-free HPs for use in PSCs. In this study, we demonstrate experimentally the promise of a new candidate HP: cesium titanium(IV) bromide, a member of a larger family of Ti-based HPs that are all-inorganic, non-toxic, and contain only earth-abundant elements. The exploration of PSCs based on this new family of HPs is likely to have a lasting impact on the global landscape of environmentally friendly PVs, and these materials may also find use in other promising (opto)electronic applications. Cesium titanium(IV) halide perovskites (HPs) are promising all-inorganic, Pb-free materials for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here we show that high-quality, uniform thin films of Cs2TiBr6 HP can be prepared through a facile low-temperature vapor-based method. These thin films exhibit a favorable bandgap of ∼1.8 eV, long and balanced carrier-diffusion lengths >100 nm, suitable energy levels, and superior intrinsic and environmental stability. The first planar-heterojunction PSCs based on Cs2TiBr6 thin films show a stable efficiency of up to 3.3%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)558-570
Number of pages13
JournalJoule
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 21 2018

Fingerprint

Cesium
Titanium
Lead
Thin films
Energy gap
Electron energy levels
Toxicity
Vapors
Perovskite solar cells
Optoelectronic devices
Perovskite
Vacancies
Heterojunctions
Demonstrations
Earth (planet)
Temperature
Ions

Keywords

  • cesium titanium bromide
  • double perovskite
  • lead-free
  • perovskite solar cells
  • photovoltaics
  • stability
  • tandem solar cells
  • thin films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)

Cite this

Chen, M., Ju, M. G., Carl, A. D., Zong, Y., Grimm, R. L., Gu, J., ... Padture, N. P. (2018). Cesium Titanium(IV) Bromide Thin Films Based Stable Lead-free Perovskite Solar Cells. Joule, 2(3), 558-570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2018.01.009

Cesium Titanium(IV) Bromide Thin Films Based Stable Lead-free Perovskite Solar Cells. / Chen, Min; Ju, Ming Gang; Carl, Alexander D.; Zong, Yingxia; Grimm, Ronald L.; Gu, Jiajun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Padture, Nitin P.

In: Joule, Vol. 2, No. 3, 21.03.2018, p. 558-570.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, M, Ju, MG, Carl, AD, Zong, Y, Grimm, RL, Gu, J, Zeng, XC, Zhou, Y & Padture, NP 2018, 'Cesium Titanium(IV) Bromide Thin Films Based Stable Lead-free Perovskite Solar Cells', Joule, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 558-570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2018.01.009
Chen, Min ; Ju, Ming Gang ; Carl, Alexander D. ; Zong, Yingxia ; Grimm, Ronald L. ; Gu, Jiajun ; Zeng, Xiao Cheng ; Zhou, Yuanyuan ; Padture, Nitin P. / Cesium Titanium(IV) Bromide Thin Films Based Stable Lead-free Perovskite Solar Cells. In: Joule. 2018 ; Vol. 2, No. 3. pp. 558-570.
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AU - Chen, Min

AU - Ju, Ming Gang

AU - Carl, Alexander D.

AU - Zong, Yingxia

AU - Grimm, Ronald L.

AU - Gu, Jiajun

AU - Zeng, Xiao Cheng

AU - Zhou, Yuanyuan

AU - Padture, Nitin P.

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N2 - Significant effort is being devoted to the search for all-inorganic Pb-free halide perovskites (HPs) for photovoltaic applications. However, candidate HPs that combine all the desirable attributes — ease of synthesis, favorable bandgaps, outstanding optoelectronic properties, high stability, no toxicity — are extremely rare. Here, we demonstrate experimentally the promise of cesium titanium(IV) bromide (Cs2TiBr6), a part of the Ti-based vacancy-ordered double-perovskite halides family, in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We show, for the first time, that high-quality Cs2TiBr6 thin films can be prepared through a facile low-temperature vapor-based method. These films exhibit a favorable bandgap of ∼1.8 eV, long and balanced carrier-diffusion lengths exceeding 100 nm, suitable energy levels, and superior intrinsic and environmental stability. The first demonstration of Cs2TiBr6 thin films-based PSCs shows stable efficiency of up to 3.3%. Insights into the Cs2TiBr6 film-formation mechanisms and the PSC device operation are provided, pointing to directions for improving Ti-based PSCs. Halide perovskites (HPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in the field of photovoltaics (PVs) in recent years. The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has seen an unprecedentedly rapid rise within a short period of time. However, the toxicity of Pb and the volatility of the organic ions in the state-of-the-art HP light absorbers have been recognized as the two major obstacles in the path of PSC development and commercialization. Thus, the search is on for all-inorganic, Pb-free HPs for use in PSCs. In this study, we demonstrate experimentally the promise of a new candidate HP: cesium titanium(IV) bromide, a member of a larger family of Ti-based HPs that are all-inorganic, non-toxic, and contain only earth-abundant elements. The exploration of PSCs based on this new family of HPs is likely to have a lasting impact on the global landscape of environmentally friendly PVs, and these materials may also find use in other promising (opto)electronic applications. Cesium titanium(IV) halide perovskites (HPs) are promising all-inorganic, Pb-free materials for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here we show that high-quality, uniform thin films of Cs2TiBr6 HP can be prepared through a facile low-temperature vapor-based method. These thin films exhibit a favorable bandgap of ∼1.8 eV, long and balanced carrier-diffusion lengths >100 nm, suitable energy levels, and superior intrinsic and environmental stability. The first planar-heterojunction PSCs based on Cs2TiBr6 thin films show a stable efficiency of up to 3.3%.

AB - Significant effort is being devoted to the search for all-inorganic Pb-free halide perovskites (HPs) for photovoltaic applications. However, candidate HPs that combine all the desirable attributes — ease of synthesis, favorable bandgaps, outstanding optoelectronic properties, high stability, no toxicity — are extremely rare. Here, we demonstrate experimentally the promise of cesium titanium(IV) bromide (Cs2TiBr6), a part of the Ti-based vacancy-ordered double-perovskite halides family, in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We show, for the first time, that high-quality Cs2TiBr6 thin films can be prepared through a facile low-temperature vapor-based method. These films exhibit a favorable bandgap of ∼1.8 eV, long and balanced carrier-diffusion lengths exceeding 100 nm, suitable energy levels, and superior intrinsic and environmental stability. The first demonstration of Cs2TiBr6 thin films-based PSCs shows stable efficiency of up to 3.3%. Insights into the Cs2TiBr6 film-formation mechanisms and the PSC device operation are provided, pointing to directions for improving Ti-based PSCs. Halide perovskites (HPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in the field of photovoltaics (PVs) in recent years. The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has seen an unprecedentedly rapid rise within a short period of time. However, the toxicity of Pb and the volatility of the organic ions in the state-of-the-art HP light absorbers have been recognized as the two major obstacles in the path of PSC development and commercialization. Thus, the search is on for all-inorganic, Pb-free HPs for use in PSCs. In this study, we demonstrate experimentally the promise of a new candidate HP: cesium titanium(IV) bromide, a member of a larger family of Ti-based HPs that are all-inorganic, non-toxic, and contain only earth-abundant elements. The exploration of PSCs based on this new family of HPs is likely to have a lasting impact on the global landscape of environmentally friendly PVs, and these materials may also find use in other promising (opto)electronic applications. Cesium titanium(IV) halide perovskites (HPs) are promising all-inorganic, Pb-free materials for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here we show that high-quality, uniform thin films of Cs2TiBr6 HP can be prepared through a facile low-temperature vapor-based method. These thin films exhibit a favorable bandgap of ∼1.8 eV, long and balanced carrier-diffusion lengths >100 nm, suitable energy levels, and superior intrinsic and environmental stability. The first planar-heterojunction PSCs based on Cs2TiBr6 thin films show a stable efficiency of up to 3.3%.

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KW - stability

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