Cellular transcription factors induced in trigeminal ganglia during dexamethasone-induced reactivation from latency stimulate bovine herpesvirus 1 productive infection and certain viral promoters

Aspen Workman, James D Eudy, Lynette M Smith, Leticia Frizzo da Silva, Devis Sinani, Halie Bricker, Emily Cook, Alan R Doster, Clinton Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Scopus citations


Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), an alphaherpesvirinae subfamily member, establishes latency in sensory neurons. Elevated corticosteroid levels, due to stress, reproducibly triggers reactivation from latency in the field. A single intravenous injection of the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) to latently infected calves consistently induces reactivation from latency. Lytic cycle viral gene expression is detected in sensory neurons within 6 h after DEX treatment of latently infected calves. These observations suggested that DEX stimulated expression of cellular genes leads to lytic cycle viral gene expression and productive infection. In this study, a commercially available assay-Bovine Gene Chip-was used to compare cellular gene expression in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with BHV-1 versus DEX-treated animals. Relative to TG prepared from latently infected calves, 11 cellular genes were induced more than 10-fold 3 h after DEX treatment. Pentraxin three, a regulator of innate immunity and neurodegeneration, was stimulated 35- to 63-fold after 3 or 6 h of DEXtreatment. Two transcription factors, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) and Slug were induced more than 15-fold 3 h after DEX treatment. PLZF or Slug stimulated productive infection 20- or 5-fold, respectively, and Slug stimulated the late glycoprotein C promoter more than 10-fold. Additional DEX-induced transcription factors also stimulated productive infection and certain viral promoters. These studies suggest that DEX-inducible cellular transcription factors and/or signaling pathways stimulate lytic cycle viral gene expression, which subsequently leads to successful reactivation from latency in a small subset of latently infected neurons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2459-2473
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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