Carcinogenicity and metabolic profiles of 6-substituted benzo[a]pyrene derivatives on mouse skin

Ercole Cavalieri, R. Roth, C. Grandjean, J. Althoff, K. Patil, S. Liakus, S. Marsh

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Abstract

The ability was tested of appropriate substituents of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) at C-6 to decrease or suppress the carcinogenic activity for these BP derivatives relative to the parent compound. 8-week-old female Swiss mice in 9 groups of 30 were treated on the back with 0.2 μmol of compound in acetone 4 times weekly for 20 weeks. The following compounds were administered: BP, 6-methylbenzo[a]pyrene (BP-6-CH3), 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene (BP-6-CH2OH), benzo[a]pyrene-6-carboxaldehyde (BP-6-CHO), benzo[a]pyrene-6-carboxylic acid, 6-methoxybenzo[a]pyrene, 6-acetoxybenzo[a]pyrene, 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-iodobenzo[a]pyrene. Two additional groups received BP or BP-6-CH3 twice weekly for 20 weeks at a total dose 25% of that above. In addition, the metabolism of selected 6-substituted BP derivatives was studied, using mouse skin homogenates in vitro and mouse skin in vivo. Only four compounds were carcinogenic; the order of potency was BP>BP-6-CH3>BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO. The difference in carcinogenicity between BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO could not be assessed by this experiment. In a further tumorigenesis experiment the carcinogenicity of BP-6-CH2OH was compared to that of BP-6 CHO, BP-6-CH3 and 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene sulfate ester (BP-6-CH2OSO3Na) on mouse skin. 9-week-old female Swiss mice in groups of 28 were treated at three dose levels with 0.8, 0.2 and 0.05 μmol of compound in dioxane-dimethyl sulfoxide (75:25) twice weekly for 40 weeks. After 40 experimental weeks BP-6-CH2OSO3Na proved to be a more potent carcinogen than BP-6-CH2OH, which, in turn was more active than BP-6-CHO. The greater carcinogenicity of BP-6-CH3 relative to BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO is confirmed, suggesting that BP-6-CH2OH is not a proximate carcinogenic metabolite for BP-6-CH3. Since BP-6-CHO is a weaker carcinogen than BP-6-CH2OH and is efficiently reduced metabolically to BP-6-CH2OH, the latter compound may be a common proximal carcinogenic metabolite. The stronger potency of BP-6-CH2OSO3Na, compared to its alcohol, suggests that an ester of BP-6-CH2OH might be the ultimate alkylating compound reacting with cellular nucleophiles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-67
Number of pages15
JournalChemico-Biological Interactions
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1978

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Metabolome
Benzo(a)pyrene
Skin
Derivatives
Metabolites
Carcinogens
Esters
Nucleophiles
Pyrene
Carboxylic Acids
Acetone
Dimethyl Sulfoxide
Metabolism
Sulfates
Experiments
Alcohols
Carcinogenesis
pyrene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Carcinogenicity and metabolic profiles of 6-substituted benzo[a]pyrene derivatives on mouse skin. / Cavalieri, Ercole; Roth, R.; Grandjean, C.; Althoff, J.; Patil, K.; Liakus, S.; Marsh, S.

In: Chemico-Biological Interactions, Vol. 22, No. 1, 07.1978, p. 53-67.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cavalieri, Ercole ; Roth, R. ; Grandjean, C. ; Althoff, J. ; Patil, K. ; Liakus, S. ; Marsh, S. / Carcinogenicity and metabolic profiles of 6-substituted benzo[a]pyrene derivatives on mouse skin. In: Chemico-Biological Interactions. 1978 ; Vol. 22, No. 1. pp. 53-67.
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abstract = "The ability was tested of appropriate substituents of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) at C-6 to decrease or suppress the carcinogenic activity for these BP derivatives relative to the parent compound. 8-week-old female Swiss mice in 9 groups of 30 were treated on the back with 0.2 μmol of compound in acetone 4 times weekly for 20 weeks. The following compounds were administered: BP, 6-methylbenzo[a]pyrene (BP-6-CH3), 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene (BP-6-CH2OH), benzo[a]pyrene-6-carboxaldehyde (BP-6-CHO), benzo[a]pyrene-6-carboxylic acid, 6-methoxybenzo[a]pyrene, 6-acetoxybenzo[a]pyrene, 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-iodobenzo[a]pyrene. Two additional groups received BP or BP-6-CH3 twice weekly for 20 weeks at a total dose 25{\%} of that above. In addition, the metabolism of selected 6-substituted BP derivatives was studied, using mouse skin homogenates in vitro and mouse skin in vivo. Only four compounds were carcinogenic; the order of potency was BP>BP-6-CH3>BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO. The difference in carcinogenicity between BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO could not be assessed by this experiment. In a further tumorigenesis experiment the carcinogenicity of BP-6-CH2OH was compared to that of BP-6 CHO, BP-6-CH3 and 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene sulfate ester (BP-6-CH2OSO3Na) on mouse skin. 9-week-old female Swiss mice in groups of 28 were treated at three dose levels with 0.8, 0.2 and 0.05 μmol of compound in dioxane-dimethyl sulfoxide (75:25) twice weekly for 40 weeks. After 40 experimental weeks BP-6-CH2OSO3Na proved to be a more potent carcinogen than BP-6-CH2OH, which, in turn was more active than BP-6-CHO. The greater carcinogenicity of BP-6-CH3 relative to BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO is confirmed, suggesting that BP-6-CH2OH is not a proximate carcinogenic metabolite for BP-6-CH3. Since BP-6-CHO is a weaker carcinogen than BP-6-CH2OH and is efficiently reduced metabolically to BP-6-CH2OH, the latter compound may be a common proximal carcinogenic metabolite. The stronger potency of BP-6-CH2OSO3Na, compared to its alcohol, suggests that an ester of BP-6-CH2OH might be the ultimate alkylating compound reacting with cellular nucleophiles.",
author = "Ercole Cavalieri and R. Roth and C. Grandjean and J. Althoff and K. Patil and S. Liakus and S. Marsh",
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AU - Cavalieri, Ercole

AU - Roth, R.

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AU - Patil, K.

AU - Liakus, S.

AU - Marsh, S.

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N2 - The ability was tested of appropriate substituents of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) at C-6 to decrease or suppress the carcinogenic activity for these BP derivatives relative to the parent compound. 8-week-old female Swiss mice in 9 groups of 30 were treated on the back with 0.2 μmol of compound in acetone 4 times weekly for 20 weeks. The following compounds were administered: BP, 6-methylbenzo[a]pyrene (BP-6-CH3), 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene (BP-6-CH2OH), benzo[a]pyrene-6-carboxaldehyde (BP-6-CHO), benzo[a]pyrene-6-carboxylic acid, 6-methoxybenzo[a]pyrene, 6-acetoxybenzo[a]pyrene, 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-iodobenzo[a]pyrene. Two additional groups received BP or BP-6-CH3 twice weekly for 20 weeks at a total dose 25% of that above. In addition, the metabolism of selected 6-substituted BP derivatives was studied, using mouse skin homogenates in vitro and mouse skin in vivo. Only four compounds were carcinogenic; the order of potency was BP>BP-6-CH3>BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO. The difference in carcinogenicity between BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO could not be assessed by this experiment. In a further tumorigenesis experiment the carcinogenicity of BP-6-CH2OH was compared to that of BP-6 CHO, BP-6-CH3 and 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene sulfate ester (BP-6-CH2OSO3Na) on mouse skin. 9-week-old female Swiss mice in groups of 28 were treated at three dose levels with 0.8, 0.2 and 0.05 μmol of compound in dioxane-dimethyl sulfoxide (75:25) twice weekly for 40 weeks. After 40 experimental weeks BP-6-CH2OSO3Na proved to be a more potent carcinogen than BP-6-CH2OH, which, in turn was more active than BP-6-CHO. The greater carcinogenicity of BP-6-CH3 relative to BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO is confirmed, suggesting that BP-6-CH2OH is not a proximate carcinogenic metabolite for BP-6-CH3. Since BP-6-CHO is a weaker carcinogen than BP-6-CH2OH and is efficiently reduced metabolically to BP-6-CH2OH, the latter compound may be a common proximal carcinogenic metabolite. The stronger potency of BP-6-CH2OSO3Na, compared to its alcohol, suggests that an ester of BP-6-CH2OH might be the ultimate alkylating compound reacting with cellular nucleophiles.

AB - The ability was tested of appropriate substituents of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) at C-6 to decrease or suppress the carcinogenic activity for these BP derivatives relative to the parent compound. 8-week-old female Swiss mice in 9 groups of 30 were treated on the back with 0.2 μmol of compound in acetone 4 times weekly for 20 weeks. The following compounds were administered: BP, 6-methylbenzo[a]pyrene (BP-6-CH3), 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene (BP-6-CH2OH), benzo[a]pyrene-6-carboxaldehyde (BP-6-CHO), benzo[a]pyrene-6-carboxylic acid, 6-methoxybenzo[a]pyrene, 6-acetoxybenzo[a]pyrene, 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-iodobenzo[a]pyrene. Two additional groups received BP or BP-6-CH3 twice weekly for 20 weeks at a total dose 25% of that above. In addition, the metabolism of selected 6-substituted BP derivatives was studied, using mouse skin homogenates in vitro and mouse skin in vivo. Only four compounds were carcinogenic; the order of potency was BP>BP-6-CH3>BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO. The difference in carcinogenicity between BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO could not be assessed by this experiment. In a further tumorigenesis experiment the carcinogenicity of BP-6-CH2OH was compared to that of BP-6 CHO, BP-6-CH3 and 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene sulfate ester (BP-6-CH2OSO3Na) on mouse skin. 9-week-old female Swiss mice in groups of 28 were treated at three dose levels with 0.8, 0.2 and 0.05 μmol of compound in dioxane-dimethyl sulfoxide (75:25) twice weekly for 40 weeks. After 40 experimental weeks BP-6-CH2OSO3Na proved to be a more potent carcinogen than BP-6-CH2OH, which, in turn was more active than BP-6-CHO. The greater carcinogenicity of BP-6-CH3 relative to BP-6-CH2OH and BP-6-CHO is confirmed, suggesting that BP-6-CH2OH is not a proximate carcinogenic metabolite for BP-6-CH3. Since BP-6-CHO is a weaker carcinogen than BP-6-CH2OH and is efficiently reduced metabolically to BP-6-CH2OH, the latter compound may be a common proximal carcinogenic metabolite. The stronger potency of BP-6-CH2OSO3Na, compared to its alcohol, suggests that an ester of BP-6-CH2OH might be the ultimate alkylating compound reacting with cellular nucleophiles.

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