Carcinogenicity and metabolic profiles of 3-methylcholanthrene oxygenated derivatives at the 1 and 2 positions

Ercole Cavalieri, R. Roth, J. Althoff, C. Grandjean, K. Patil, S. Marsh, D. Mclaughlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Trapping of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) radical cation by nucleophilic compounds occurs specifically at the 1-carbon atom. With the purpose of providing more evidence for the hypothesis that the critical mechanism of activation of MC is one-electron oxidation, the carcinogenicity of MC was compared to that of 1-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (MC-1-OH), 3-methylcholanthrene-1-one (MC-1-one), 2-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (MC-2-OH), 3-methylcholanthrene-2-one (MC-2-one) and 3-methylcholanthrylene (MCL) by repeated application on mouse skin. Seven-week-old female Swiss mice in 6 groups of 30 were treated on the back with 0.2 μmol of compound in acetone twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, the metabolism of MC and its derivatives was studied using mouse skin homogenates. The compounds tested were classified according to carcinogenicity in 4 groups: MC and MC-2-OH, the strongest carcinogens; MC-2-one and MCL, weaker than MC and MC-2-OH; MC-1-OH, the weakest carcinogen; and MC-1-one, noncarcinogenic. These results support the hypothesis that one-electron oxidation for MC, MC-2-OH and MC-1-one might be the critical mechanism of carcinogenic activation, with C-1 the binding site to cellular nucleophiles. The carcinogenic effect of MC-1-OH is speculated to be the formation of an ester bearing a good leaving group, which might be the ultimate alkylating compound in the in vivo reaction. The lack of carcinogenic activity for MC-1-one may be attributed to absence of nucleophilic trapping at C-1 via the radical cation pathway as well as the inability of mouse skin to reduce MC-1-one to the carcinogenic MC-1-OH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-81
Number of pages13
JournalChemico-Biological Interactions
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1978

Fingerprint

Methylcholanthrene
Metabolome
Derivatives
Skin
Carcinogens
Cations
Bearings (structural)
Chemical activation
Electrons
Oxidation
Nucleophiles
Acetone
Metabolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Carcinogenicity and metabolic profiles of 3-methylcholanthrene oxygenated derivatives at the 1 and 2 positions. / Cavalieri, Ercole; Roth, R.; Althoff, J.; Grandjean, C.; Patil, K.; Marsh, S.; Mclaughlin, D.

In: Chemico-Biological Interactions, Vol. 22, No. 1, 07.1978, p. 69-81.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cavalieri, Ercole ; Roth, R. ; Althoff, J. ; Grandjean, C. ; Patil, K. ; Marsh, S. ; Mclaughlin, D. / Carcinogenicity and metabolic profiles of 3-methylcholanthrene oxygenated derivatives at the 1 and 2 positions. In: Chemico-Biological Interactions. 1978 ; Vol. 22, No. 1. pp. 69-81.
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abstract = "Trapping of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) radical cation by nucleophilic compounds occurs specifically at the 1-carbon atom. With the purpose of providing more evidence for the hypothesis that the critical mechanism of activation of MC is one-electron oxidation, the carcinogenicity of MC was compared to that of 1-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (MC-1-OH), 3-methylcholanthrene-1-one (MC-1-one), 2-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (MC-2-OH), 3-methylcholanthrene-2-one (MC-2-one) and 3-methylcholanthrylene (MCL) by repeated application on mouse skin. Seven-week-old female Swiss mice in 6 groups of 30 were treated on the back with 0.2 μmol of compound in acetone twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, the metabolism of MC and its derivatives was studied using mouse skin homogenates. The compounds tested were classified according to carcinogenicity in 4 groups: MC and MC-2-OH, the strongest carcinogens; MC-2-one and MCL, weaker than MC and MC-2-OH; MC-1-OH, the weakest carcinogen; and MC-1-one, noncarcinogenic. These results support the hypothesis that one-electron oxidation for MC, MC-2-OH and MC-1-one might be the critical mechanism of carcinogenic activation, with C-1 the binding site to cellular nucleophiles. The carcinogenic effect of MC-1-OH is speculated to be the formation of an ester bearing a good leaving group, which might be the ultimate alkylating compound in the in vivo reaction. The lack of carcinogenic activity for MC-1-one may be attributed to absence of nucleophilic trapping at C-1 via the radical cation pathway as well as the inability of mouse skin to reduce MC-1-one to the carcinogenic MC-1-OH.",
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N2 - Trapping of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) radical cation by nucleophilic compounds occurs specifically at the 1-carbon atom. With the purpose of providing more evidence for the hypothesis that the critical mechanism of activation of MC is one-electron oxidation, the carcinogenicity of MC was compared to that of 1-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (MC-1-OH), 3-methylcholanthrene-1-one (MC-1-one), 2-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (MC-2-OH), 3-methylcholanthrene-2-one (MC-2-one) and 3-methylcholanthrylene (MCL) by repeated application on mouse skin. Seven-week-old female Swiss mice in 6 groups of 30 were treated on the back with 0.2 μmol of compound in acetone twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, the metabolism of MC and its derivatives was studied using mouse skin homogenates. The compounds tested were classified according to carcinogenicity in 4 groups: MC and MC-2-OH, the strongest carcinogens; MC-2-one and MCL, weaker than MC and MC-2-OH; MC-1-OH, the weakest carcinogen; and MC-1-one, noncarcinogenic. These results support the hypothesis that one-electron oxidation for MC, MC-2-OH and MC-1-one might be the critical mechanism of carcinogenic activation, with C-1 the binding site to cellular nucleophiles. The carcinogenic effect of MC-1-OH is speculated to be the formation of an ester bearing a good leaving group, which might be the ultimate alkylating compound in the in vivo reaction. The lack of carcinogenic activity for MC-1-one may be attributed to absence of nucleophilic trapping at C-1 via the radical cation pathway as well as the inability of mouse skin to reduce MC-1-one to the carcinogenic MC-1-OH.

AB - Trapping of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) radical cation by nucleophilic compounds occurs specifically at the 1-carbon atom. With the purpose of providing more evidence for the hypothesis that the critical mechanism of activation of MC is one-electron oxidation, the carcinogenicity of MC was compared to that of 1-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (MC-1-OH), 3-methylcholanthrene-1-one (MC-1-one), 2-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (MC-2-OH), 3-methylcholanthrene-2-one (MC-2-one) and 3-methylcholanthrylene (MCL) by repeated application on mouse skin. Seven-week-old female Swiss mice in 6 groups of 30 were treated on the back with 0.2 μmol of compound in acetone twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, the metabolism of MC and its derivatives was studied using mouse skin homogenates. The compounds tested were classified according to carcinogenicity in 4 groups: MC and MC-2-OH, the strongest carcinogens; MC-2-one and MCL, weaker than MC and MC-2-OH; MC-1-OH, the weakest carcinogen; and MC-1-one, noncarcinogenic. These results support the hypothesis that one-electron oxidation for MC, MC-2-OH and MC-1-one might be the critical mechanism of carcinogenic activation, with C-1 the binding site to cellular nucleophiles. The carcinogenic effect of MC-1-OH is speculated to be the formation of an ester bearing a good leaving group, which might be the ultimate alkylating compound in the in vivo reaction. The lack of carcinogenic activity for MC-1-one may be attributed to absence of nucleophilic trapping at C-1 via the radical cation pathway as well as the inability of mouse skin to reduce MC-1-one to the carcinogenic MC-1-OH.

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