Cadmium- and chromium-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death in cultured human chronic myelogenous leukemic K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

D. Bagchi, Shantaram S Joshi, M. Bagchi, J. Balmoori, E. J. Benner, C. A. Kuszynski, S. J. Stohs

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Abstract

Sodium dichromate [Cr(VI)] and cadmium chloride [Cd(II)] are both cytotoxic and mutagenic. This study examined the toxic and apoptotic potentials of these two cations on three cell types in vitro, namely, human chronic myelogenous leukemic (CML) K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cells were incubated with 0-100 μM concentrations of the two cations for 0, 24, or 48 hours at 37°C. Both Cr(VI) and Cd(II) induced changes in intracellular oxidized states of cells, which were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Cell cycle modulation and apoptosis of the K562 cells by Cr(VI) and Cd(II) were determined by flow cytometry. Significant decreases in the G2/M phase were observed in the Cr(VI) and Cd(II) treated CML cells compared with untreated cells. At 12.5 μM, Cr(VI) induced greater apoptosis in K562 cells as compared with Cd(II). In the K562 cells, 2.2- and 3.0-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.2- and 1.7-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed with Cd(II). Furthermore, approximately 2.7- and 4.9-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.6- and 3.3-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed with Cd(II), demonstrating enhanced production of superoxide anion. Approximately 3.1 to 6-fold increases in hydroxyl radical production were observed following incubation of the K562 cells with these cations at 12.5 and 25 μM concentrations. These results in K562 cells were compared with promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. More pronounced effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells, and much lesser effects were observed on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrate that both cations are toxic, producing oxidative tissue damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, more drastic effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells as compared with normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-41
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Volume14
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2000

Fingerprint

Oxidative stress
K562 Cells
HL-60 Cells
Chromium
Cell death
Cadmium
DNA Damage
Blood Cells
Oxidative Stress
Blood
Cell Death
DNA
Cations
Poisons
DNA Fragmentation
Apoptosis
Cytochromes c
Cadmium Chloride
Flow cytometry
Confocal microscopy

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Cadmium (II) Chloride
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemic K562 cells
  • DNA Fragmentation
  • Flow Cytometry
  • HL-60 cells
  • Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
  • Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
  • Sodium Dichromate
  • Superoxide Anion and Hydroxyl Radicals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

@article{7fc47333e9584fa788b8b5369d243fa5,
title = "Cadmium- and chromium-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death in cultured human chronic myelogenous leukemic K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells",
abstract = "Sodium dichromate [Cr(VI)] and cadmium chloride [Cd(II)] are both cytotoxic and mutagenic. This study examined the toxic and apoptotic potentials of these two cations on three cell types in vitro, namely, human chronic myelogenous leukemic (CML) K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cells were incubated with 0-100 μM concentrations of the two cations for 0, 24, or 48 hours at 37°C. Both Cr(VI) and Cd(II) induced changes in intracellular oxidized states of cells, which were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Cell cycle modulation and apoptosis of the K562 cells by Cr(VI) and Cd(II) were determined by flow cytometry. Significant decreases in the G2/M phase were observed in the Cr(VI) and Cd(II) treated CML cells compared with untreated cells. At 12.5 μM, Cr(VI) induced greater apoptosis in K562 cells as compared with Cd(II). In the K562 cells, 2.2- and 3.0-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.2- and 1.7-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed with Cd(II). Furthermore, approximately 2.7- and 4.9-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.6- and 3.3-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed with Cd(II), demonstrating enhanced production of superoxide anion. Approximately 3.1 to 6-fold increases in hydroxyl radical production were observed following incubation of the K562 cells with these cations at 12.5 and 25 μM concentrations. These results in K562 cells were compared with promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. More pronounced effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells, and much lesser effects were observed on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrate that both cations are toxic, producing oxidative tissue damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, more drastic effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells as compared with normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.",
keywords = "Apoptosis, Cadmium (II) Chloride, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemic K562 cells, DNA Fragmentation, Flow Cytometry, HL-60 cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy, Sodium Dichromate, Superoxide Anion and Hydroxyl Radicals",
author = "D. Bagchi and Joshi, {Shantaram S} and M. Bagchi and J. Balmoori and Benner, {E. J.} and Kuszynski, {C. A.} and Stohs, {S. J.}",
year = "2000",
month = "12",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "33--41",
journal = "Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Cadmium- and chromium-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death in cultured human chronic myelogenous leukemic K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

AU - Bagchi, D.

AU - Joshi, Shantaram S

AU - Bagchi, M.

AU - Balmoori, J.

AU - Benner, E. J.

AU - Kuszynski, C. A.

AU - Stohs, S. J.

PY - 2000/12/1

Y1 - 2000/12/1

N2 - Sodium dichromate [Cr(VI)] and cadmium chloride [Cd(II)] are both cytotoxic and mutagenic. This study examined the toxic and apoptotic potentials of these two cations on three cell types in vitro, namely, human chronic myelogenous leukemic (CML) K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cells were incubated with 0-100 μM concentrations of the two cations for 0, 24, or 48 hours at 37°C. Both Cr(VI) and Cd(II) induced changes in intracellular oxidized states of cells, which were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Cell cycle modulation and apoptosis of the K562 cells by Cr(VI) and Cd(II) were determined by flow cytometry. Significant decreases in the G2/M phase were observed in the Cr(VI) and Cd(II) treated CML cells compared with untreated cells. At 12.5 μM, Cr(VI) induced greater apoptosis in K562 cells as compared with Cd(II). In the K562 cells, 2.2- and 3.0-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.2- and 1.7-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed with Cd(II). Furthermore, approximately 2.7- and 4.9-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.6- and 3.3-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed with Cd(II), demonstrating enhanced production of superoxide anion. Approximately 3.1 to 6-fold increases in hydroxyl radical production were observed following incubation of the K562 cells with these cations at 12.5 and 25 μM concentrations. These results in K562 cells were compared with promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. More pronounced effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells, and much lesser effects were observed on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrate that both cations are toxic, producing oxidative tissue damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, more drastic effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells as compared with normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

AB - Sodium dichromate [Cr(VI)] and cadmium chloride [Cd(II)] are both cytotoxic and mutagenic. This study examined the toxic and apoptotic potentials of these two cations on three cell types in vitro, namely, human chronic myelogenous leukemic (CML) K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cells were incubated with 0-100 μM concentrations of the two cations for 0, 24, or 48 hours at 37°C. Both Cr(VI) and Cd(II) induced changes in intracellular oxidized states of cells, which were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Cell cycle modulation and apoptosis of the K562 cells by Cr(VI) and Cd(II) were determined by flow cytometry. Significant decreases in the G2/M phase were observed in the Cr(VI) and Cd(II) treated CML cells compared with untreated cells. At 12.5 μM, Cr(VI) induced greater apoptosis in K562 cells as compared with Cd(II). In the K562 cells, 2.2- and 3.0-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.2- and 1.7-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed with Cd(II). Furthermore, approximately 2.7- and 4.9-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.6- and 3.3-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed with Cd(II), demonstrating enhanced production of superoxide anion. Approximately 3.1 to 6-fold increases in hydroxyl radical production were observed following incubation of the K562 cells with these cations at 12.5 and 25 μM concentrations. These results in K562 cells were compared with promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. More pronounced effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells, and much lesser effects were observed on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrate that both cations are toxic, producing oxidative tissue damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, more drastic effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells as compared with normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

KW - Apoptosis

KW - Cadmium (II) Chloride

KW - Chronic Myelogenous Leukemic K562 cells

KW - DNA Fragmentation

KW - Flow Cytometry

KW - HL-60 cells

KW - Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

KW - Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

KW - Sodium Dichromate

KW - Superoxide Anion and Hydroxyl Radicals

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M3 - Article

C2 - 10561080

AN - SCOPUS:0033988740

VL - 14

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