Brain glycogen decreases with increased periods of wakefulness

Implications for homeostatic drive to sleep

Jiming Kong, P. Nicolas Shepel, Clark P. Holden, Mirek Mackiewicz, Allan I. Pack, Jonathan Geiger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

181 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sleep is thought to be restorative in function, but what is restored during sleep is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased periods of wakefulness will result in decreased levels of glycogen, the principal energy store in brain, and with recovery sleep levels of glycogen will be replenished, thus representing a homeostatic component of sleep drive. Using a high-energy focused microwave irradiation method to kill animals and thereby snap-inactivate glycogen-producing and -metabolizing enzymes, we determined, with accuracy and precision, levels of brain glycogen and showed these levels to decrease significantly by ∼40% in brains of rats deprived of sleep for 12 or 24 hr. Recovery sleep of 15 hr duration after 12 hr of sleep deprivation reversed the decreases in glycogen. Using a novel histochemical method to stain brain glycogen, we found glycogen to be concentrated in white matter; this finding was confirmed biochemically in white matter dissected from rats killed with microwave irradiation. Levels of glycogen, as determined histochemically, were significantly decreased in gray and white matter with sleep deprivation, and these decreases were reversed with recovery sleep. The observed decreases in levels of brain glycogen may be a consequence of increased wakefulness and/or a component integral to the homeostatic drive to sleep.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5581-5587
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume22
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2002

Fingerprint

Wakefulness
Glycogen
Sleep
Brain
Sleep Deprivation
Microwaves
Drive
Coloring Agents
Enzymes

Keywords

  • Astrocyte
  • Brain energy store
  • Glycogen
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Sleep drive
  • White matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Kong, J., Shepel, P. N., Holden, C. P., Mackiewicz, M., Pack, A. I., & Geiger, J. (2002). Brain glycogen decreases with increased periods of wakefulness: Implications for homeostatic drive to sleep. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(13), 5581-5587.

Brain glycogen decreases with increased periods of wakefulness : Implications for homeostatic drive to sleep. / Kong, Jiming; Shepel, P. Nicolas; Holden, Clark P.; Mackiewicz, Mirek; Pack, Allan I.; Geiger, Jonathan.

In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No. 13, 01.07.2002, p. 5581-5587.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kong, J, Shepel, PN, Holden, CP, Mackiewicz, M, Pack, AI & Geiger, J 2002, 'Brain glycogen decreases with increased periods of wakefulness: Implications for homeostatic drive to sleep', Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 5581-5587.
Kong, Jiming ; Shepel, P. Nicolas ; Holden, Clark P. ; Mackiewicz, Mirek ; Pack, Allan I. ; Geiger, Jonathan. / Brain glycogen decreases with increased periods of wakefulness : Implications for homeostatic drive to sleep. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 2002 ; Vol. 22, No. 13. pp. 5581-5587.
@article{927d1fdba6034c89aee55184f94f38cc,
title = "Brain glycogen decreases with increased periods of wakefulness: Implications for homeostatic drive to sleep",
abstract = "Sleep is thought to be restorative in function, but what is restored during sleep is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased periods of wakefulness will result in decreased levels of glycogen, the principal energy store in brain, and with recovery sleep levels of glycogen will be replenished, thus representing a homeostatic component of sleep drive. Using a high-energy focused microwave irradiation method to kill animals and thereby snap-inactivate glycogen-producing and -metabolizing enzymes, we determined, with accuracy and precision, levels of brain glycogen and showed these levels to decrease significantly by ∼40{\%} in brains of rats deprived of sleep for 12 or 24 hr. Recovery sleep of 15 hr duration after 12 hr of sleep deprivation reversed the decreases in glycogen. Using a novel histochemical method to stain brain glycogen, we found glycogen to be concentrated in white matter; this finding was confirmed biochemically in white matter dissected from rats killed with microwave irradiation. Levels of glycogen, as determined histochemically, were significantly decreased in gray and white matter with sleep deprivation, and these decreases were reversed with recovery sleep. The observed decreases in levels of brain glycogen may be a consequence of increased wakefulness and/or a component integral to the homeostatic drive to sleep.",
keywords = "Astrocyte, Brain energy store, Glycogen, Sleep deprivation, Sleep drive, White matter",
author = "Jiming Kong and Shepel, {P. Nicolas} and Holden, {Clark P.} and Mirek Mackiewicz and Pack, {Allan I.} and Jonathan Geiger",
year = "2002",
month = "7",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "22",
pages = "5581--5587",
journal = "Journal of Neuroscience",
issn = "0270-6474",
publisher = "Society for Neuroscience",
number = "13",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Brain glycogen decreases with increased periods of wakefulness

T2 - Implications for homeostatic drive to sleep

AU - Kong, Jiming

AU - Shepel, P. Nicolas

AU - Holden, Clark P.

AU - Mackiewicz, Mirek

AU - Pack, Allan I.

AU - Geiger, Jonathan

PY - 2002/7/1

Y1 - 2002/7/1

N2 - Sleep is thought to be restorative in function, but what is restored during sleep is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased periods of wakefulness will result in decreased levels of glycogen, the principal energy store in brain, and with recovery sleep levels of glycogen will be replenished, thus representing a homeostatic component of sleep drive. Using a high-energy focused microwave irradiation method to kill animals and thereby snap-inactivate glycogen-producing and -metabolizing enzymes, we determined, with accuracy and precision, levels of brain glycogen and showed these levels to decrease significantly by ∼40% in brains of rats deprived of sleep for 12 or 24 hr. Recovery sleep of 15 hr duration after 12 hr of sleep deprivation reversed the decreases in glycogen. Using a novel histochemical method to stain brain glycogen, we found glycogen to be concentrated in white matter; this finding was confirmed biochemically in white matter dissected from rats killed with microwave irradiation. Levels of glycogen, as determined histochemically, were significantly decreased in gray and white matter with sleep deprivation, and these decreases were reversed with recovery sleep. The observed decreases in levels of brain glycogen may be a consequence of increased wakefulness and/or a component integral to the homeostatic drive to sleep.

AB - Sleep is thought to be restorative in function, but what is restored during sleep is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased periods of wakefulness will result in decreased levels of glycogen, the principal energy store in brain, and with recovery sleep levels of glycogen will be replenished, thus representing a homeostatic component of sleep drive. Using a high-energy focused microwave irradiation method to kill animals and thereby snap-inactivate glycogen-producing and -metabolizing enzymes, we determined, with accuracy and precision, levels of brain glycogen and showed these levels to decrease significantly by ∼40% in brains of rats deprived of sleep for 12 or 24 hr. Recovery sleep of 15 hr duration after 12 hr of sleep deprivation reversed the decreases in glycogen. Using a novel histochemical method to stain brain glycogen, we found glycogen to be concentrated in white matter; this finding was confirmed biochemically in white matter dissected from rats killed with microwave irradiation. Levels of glycogen, as determined histochemically, were significantly decreased in gray and white matter with sleep deprivation, and these decreases were reversed with recovery sleep. The observed decreases in levels of brain glycogen may be a consequence of increased wakefulness and/or a component integral to the homeostatic drive to sleep.

KW - Astrocyte

KW - Brain energy store

KW - Glycogen

KW - Sleep deprivation

KW - Sleep drive

KW - White matter

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036662943&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036662943&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 5581

EP - 5587

JO - Journal of Neuroscience

JF - Journal of Neuroscience

SN - 0270-6474

IS - 13

ER -