Brain Development Includes Linear and Multiple Nonlinear Trajectories: A Cross-Sectional Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Ashkan Faghiri, Julia M. Stephen, Yu Ping Wang, Tony W. Wilson, Vince D. Calhoun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Studies of brain structure have shown that the cortex matures in both a linear and nonlinear manner depending on the time window and specific region studied. In addition, it has been shown that socioeconomic status can impact brain development throughout childhood. However, very few studies have evaluated these patterns using functional measures. To this end, in this study we used cross-sectional resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 368 subjects, age 3-21 years, to examine the linear and nonlinear development of brain connectivity. We employed a clustering approach to characterize these developmental patterns into different linear and nonlinear groups. Our results showed that functional brain development exhibits multiple types of linear and nonlinear patterns, and assuming that brain connectivity values reach a stable state after a specific age might be misleading.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)777-788
Number of pages12
JournalBrain connectivity
Issue number10
StatePublished - Dec 2019



  • ICA
  • brain connectivity
  • fMRI
  • maturation
  • nonlinear development
  • resting state

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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