Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Bryant England, Joshua F. Baker, Harlan Sayles, Kaleb D Michaud, Liron Caplan, Lisa A. Davis, Grant W. Cannon, Brian C. Sauer, E. Blair Solow, Andreas M. Reimold, Gail S. Kerr, Ted R Mikuls

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: To examine associations of body mass index (BMI) and weight loss with cause-specific mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A cohort of US veterans with RA was followed until death or through 2013. BMI was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Weight loss was calculated as the 1) annualized rate of change over the preceding 13 months, and 2) cumulative percent. Vital status and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable competing-risks regression models were utilized to assess the time-varying associations of BMI and weight loss with cause-specific mortality. Results: Among 1,600 participants and 5,789 patient-years of followup, 303 deaths occurred (95 cardiovascular, 74 cancer, and 46 respiratory). The highest weight-loss rate and weight-loss percent were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (rate: subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] 2.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.61–3.19]; percent: sHR 2.31 [95% CI 1.06–5.01]) and cancer mortality (rate: sHR 2.36 [95% CI 1.11–5.01]; percent: sHR 1.90 [95% CI 1.00–3.62]). Overweight BMI was protective of cardiovascular mortality (sHR 0.59 [95% CI 0.38–0.91]), while underweight BMI was associated with a near 3-fold increased risk of respiratory mortality (sHR 2.93 [95% CI 1.28–6.67]). Incorporation of time-varying BMI and weight loss in the same models did not substantially alter individual associations for cardiovascular and cancer mortality, but an association between weight-loss percentage and respiratory mortality was attenuated after BMI adjustment. Conclusion: Both BMI and weight loss are predictors of cause-specific mortality in RA. Weight loss is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and cancer mortality, while underweight BMI is a stronger predictor of respiratory mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11-18
Number of pages8
JournalArthritis Care and Research
Volume70
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

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Weight Loss
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Body Mass Index
Mortality
Confidence Intervals
Thinness
Neoplasms
Veterans
Cause of Death

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology

Cite this

Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Rheumatoid Arthritis. / England, Bryant; Baker, Joshua F.; Sayles, Harlan; Michaud, Kaleb D; Caplan, Liron; Davis, Lisa A.; Cannon, Grant W.; Sauer, Brian C.; Solow, E. Blair; Reimold, Andreas M.; Kerr, Gail S.; Mikuls, Ted R.

In: Arthritis Care and Research, Vol. 70, No. 1, 01.01.2018, p. 11-18.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

England, B, Baker, JF, Sayles, H, Michaud, KD, Caplan, L, Davis, LA, Cannon, GW, Sauer, BC, Solow, EB, Reimold, AM, Kerr, GS & Mikuls, TR 2018, 'Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Rheumatoid Arthritis', Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 11-18. https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.23258
England, Bryant ; Baker, Joshua F. ; Sayles, Harlan ; Michaud, Kaleb D ; Caplan, Liron ; Davis, Lisa A. ; Cannon, Grant W. ; Sauer, Brian C. ; Solow, E. Blair ; Reimold, Andreas M. ; Kerr, Gail S. ; Mikuls, Ted R. / Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Rheumatoid Arthritis. In: Arthritis Care and Research. 2018 ; Vol. 70, No. 1. pp. 11-18.
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abstract = "Objective: To examine associations of body mass index (BMI) and weight loss with cause-specific mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A cohort of US veterans with RA was followed until death or through 2013. BMI was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Weight loss was calculated as the 1) annualized rate of change over the preceding 13 months, and 2) cumulative percent. Vital status and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable competing-risks regression models were utilized to assess the time-varying associations of BMI and weight loss with cause-specific mortality. Results: Among 1,600 participants and 5,789 patient-years of followup, 303 deaths occurred (95 cardiovascular, 74 cancer, and 46 respiratory). The highest weight-loss rate and weight-loss percent were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (rate: subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] 2.27 [95{\%} confidence interval (95{\%} CI) 1.61–3.19]; percent: sHR 2.31 [95{\%} CI 1.06–5.01]) and cancer mortality (rate: sHR 2.36 [95{\%} CI 1.11–5.01]; percent: sHR 1.90 [95{\%} CI 1.00–3.62]). Overweight BMI was protective of cardiovascular mortality (sHR 0.59 [95{\%} CI 0.38–0.91]), while underweight BMI was associated with a near 3-fold increased risk of respiratory mortality (sHR 2.93 [95{\%} CI 1.28–6.67]). Incorporation of time-varying BMI and weight loss in the same models did not substantially alter individual associations for cardiovascular and cancer mortality, but an association between weight-loss percentage and respiratory mortality was attenuated after BMI adjustment. Conclusion: Both BMI and weight loss are predictors of cause-specific mortality in RA. Weight loss is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and cancer mortality, while underweight BMI is a stronger predictor of respiratory mortality.",
author = "Bryant England and Baker, {Joshua F.} and Harlan Sayles and Michaud, {Kaleb D} and Liron Caplan and Davis, {Lisa A.} and Cannon, {Grant W.} and Sauer, {Brian C.} and Solow, {E. Blair} and Reimold, {Andreas M.} and Kerr, {Gail S.} and Mikuls, {Ted R}",
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AU - Baker, Joshua F.

AU - Sayles, Harlan

AU - Michaud, Kaleb D

AU - Caplan, Liron

AU - Davis, Lisa A.

AU - Cannon, Grant W.

AU - Sauer, Brian C.

AU - Solow, E. Blair

AU - Reimold, Andreas M.

AU - Kerr, Gail S.

AU - Mikuls, Ted R

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N2 - Objective: To examine associations of body mass index (BMI) and weight loss with cause-specific mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A cohort of US veterans with RA was followed until death or through 2013. BMI was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Weight loss was calculated as the 1) annualized rate of change over the preceding 13 months, and 2) cumulative percent. Vital status and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable competing-risks regression models were utilized to assess the time-varying associations of BMI and weight loss with cause-specific mortality. Results: Among 1,600 participants and 5,789 patient-years of followup, 303 deaths occurred (95 cardiovascular, 74 cancer, and 46 respiratory). The highest weight-loss rate and weight-loss percent were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (rate: subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] 2.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.61–3.19]; percent: sHR 2.31 [95% CI 1.06–5.01]) and cancer mortality (rate: sHR 2.36 [95% CI 1.11–5.01]; percent: sHR 1.90 [95% CI 1.00–3.62]). Overweight BMI was protective of cardiovascular mortality (sHR 0.59 [95% CI 0.38–0.91]), while underweight BMI was associated with a near 3-fold increased risk of respiratory mortality (sHR 2.93 [95% CI 1.28–6.67]). Incorporation of time-varying BMI and weight loss in the same models did not substantially alter individual associations for cardiovascular and cancer mortality, but an association between weight-loss percentage and respiratory mortality was attenuated after BMI adjustment. Conclusion: Both BMI and weight loss are predictors of cause-specific mortality in RA. Weight loss is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and cancer mortality, while underweight BMI is a stronger predictor of respiratory mortality.

AB - Objective: To examine associations of body mass index (BMI) and weight loss with cause-specific mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A cohort of US veterans with RA was followed until death or through 2013. BMI was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Weight loss was calculated as the 1) annualized rate of change over the preceding 13 months, and 2) cumulative percent. Vital status and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable competing-risks regression models were utilized to assess the time-varying associations of BMI and weight loss with cause-specific mortality. Results: Among 1,600 participants and 5,789 patient-years of followup, 303 deaths occurred (95 cardiovascular, 74 cancer, and 46 respiratory). The highest weight-loss rate and weight-loss percent were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (rate: subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] 2.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.61–3.19]; percent: sHR 2.31 [95% CI 1.06–5.01]) and cancer mortality (rate: sHR 2.36 [95% CI 1.11–5.01]; percent: sHR 1.90 [95% CI 1.00–3.62]). Overweight BMI was protective of cardiovascular mortality (sHR 0.59 [95% CI 0.38–0.91]), while underweight BMI was associated with a near 3-fold increased risk of respiratory mortality (sHR 2.93 [95% CI 1.28–6.67]). Incorporation of time-varying BMI and weight loss in the same models did not substantially alter individual associations for cardiovascular and cancer mortality, but an association between weight-loss percentage and respiratory mortality was attenuated after BMI adjustment. Conclusion: Both BMI and weight loss are predictors of cause-specific mortality in RA. Weight loss is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and cancer mortality, while underweight BMI is a stronger predictor of respiratory mortality.

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