Blood flow restricted exercise compared to high load resistance exercise during unloading

Kyle J. Hackney, Meghan E. Downs, Lori Ploutz-Snyder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Bed rest studies have shown that high load (HL) resistance training can mitigate the loss of muscle size and strength during musculoskeletal unloading; however, not all individuals are able to perform HL resistance exercise. Blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise may be a novel way to prevent maladaptation to unloading without requiring HL exercise equipment. This study evaluated the muscular training adaptations to HL and BFR resistance training during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS), a human limb unloading model. ULLS allows for evaluation of exercise training in both weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing legs within the same individual. METHODS: There were 13 participants who completed 25 d of ULLS and were counterbalanced to: 1) HL, N = 6; or 2) BFR, N = 7, training groups. During ULLS, HL and BFR performed unilateral leg press and heel raise exercise (3 d/wk). RESULTS: In weight-bearing legs, both HL and BFR increased knee extensor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength. In nonweight-bearing legs, knee extensor CSA and strength increased only in HL and decreased with BFR. CONCLUSION: HL and BFR resistance exercise were both effective exercise programs for the weight-bearing leg. However, BFR exercise was not as effective as HL resistance exercise in the nonweight-bearing leg. These data show that exercise that improved muscle CSA and strength in ambulatory weight-bearing conditions was not sufficient to maintain muscle function during unloading. For the preservation of muscle CSA and strength, BFR exercise should be considered an adjunct but not a primary exercise countermeasure for future space missions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)688-696
Number of pages9
JournalAerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Volume87
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016

Fingerprint

Leg
Resistance Training
Lower Extremity
Suspensions
Weight-Bearing
Muscles
Knee
Bed Rest
Heel
Muscle Strength
Extremities
Exercise
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Anabolic Impairment
  • Exercise countermeasures
  • Spaceflight
  • ULLS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Blood flow restricted exercise compared to high load resistance exercise during unloading. / Hackney, Kyle J.; Downs, Meghan E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori.

In: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, Vol. 87, No. 8, 01.08.2016, p. 688-696.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{9b3a7c265ae64f89aa28313375d74875,
title = "Blood flow restricted exercise compared to high load resistance exercise during unloading",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Bed rest studies have shown that high load (HL) resistance training can mitigate the loss of muscle size and strength during musculoskeletal unloading; however, not all individuals are able to perform HL resistance exercise. Blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise may be a novel way to prevent maladaptation to unloading without requiring HL exercise equipment. This study evaluated the muscular training adaptations to HL and BFR resistance training during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS), a human limb unloading model. ULLS allows for evaluation of exercise training in both weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing legs within the same individual. METHODS: There were 13 participants who completed 25 d of ULLS and were counterbalanced to: 1) HL, N = 6; or 2) BFR, N = 7, training groups. During ULLS, HL and BFR performed unilateral leg press and heel raise exercise (3 d/wk). RESULTS: In weight-bearing legs, both HL and BFR increased knee extensor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength. In nonweight-bearing legs, knee extensor CSA and strength increased only in HL and decreased with BFR. CONCLUSION: HL and BFR resistance exercise were both effective exercise programs for the weight-bearing leg. However, BFR exercise was not as effective as HL resistance exercise in the nonweight-bearing leg. These data show that exercise that improved muscle CSA and strength in ambulatory weight-bearing conditions was not sufficient to maintain muscle function during unloading. For the preservation of muscle CSA and strength, BFR exercise should be considered an adjunct but not a primary exercise countermeasure for future space missions.",
keywords = "Anabolic Impairment, Exercise countermeasures, Spaceflight, ULLS",
author = "Hackney, {Kyle J.} and Downs, {Meghan E.} and Lori Ploutz-Snyder",
year = "2016",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3357/AMHP.4566.2016",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "87",
pages = "688--696",
journal = "Aerospace medicine and human performance",
issn = "2375-6314",
publisher = "Aerospace Medical Association",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Blood flow restricted exercise compared to high load resistance exercise during unloading

AU - Hackney, Kyle J.

AU - Downs, Meghan E.

AU - Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

PY - 2016/8/1

Y1 - 2016/8/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Bed rest studies have shown that high load (HL) resistance training can mitigate the loss of muscle size and strength during musculoskeletal unloading; however, not all individuals are able to perform HL resistance exercise. Blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise may be a novel way to prevent maladaptation to unloading without requiring HL exercise equipment. This study evaluated the muscular training adaptations to HL and BFR resistance training during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS), a human limb unloading model. ULLS allows for evaluation of exercise training in both weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing legs within the same individual. METHODS: There were 13 participants who completed 25 d of ULLS and were counterbalanced to: 1) HL, N = 6; or 2) BFR, N = 7, training groups. During ULLS, HL and BFR performed unilateral leg press and heel raise exercise (3 d/wk). RESULTS: In weight-bearing legs, both HL and BFR increased knee extensor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength. In nonweight-bearing legs, knee extensor CSA and strength increased only in HL and decreased with BFR. CONCLUSION: HL and BFR resistance exercise were both effective exercise programs for the weight-bearing leg. However, BFR exercise was not as effective as HL resistance exercise in the nonweight-bearing leg. These data show that exercise that improved muscle CSA and strength in ambulatory weight-bearing conditions was not sufficient to maintain muscle function during unloading. For the preservation of muscle CSA and strength, BFR exercise should be considered an adjunct but not a primary exercise countermeasure for future space missions.

AB - BACKGROUND: Bed rest studies have shown that high load (HL) resistance training can mitigate the loss of muscle size and strength during musculoskeletal unloading; however, not all individuals are able to perform HL resistance exercise. Blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise may be a novel way to prevent maladaptation to unloading without requiring HL exercise equipment. This study evaluated the muscular training adaptations to HL and BFR resistance training during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS), a human limb unloading model. ULLS allows for evaluation of exercise training in both weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing legs within the same individual. METHODS: There were 13 participants who completed 25 d of ULLS and were counterbalanced to: 1) HL, N = 6; or 2) BFR, N = 7, training groups. During ULLS, HL and BFR performed unilateral leg press and heel raise exercise (3 d/wk). RESULTS: In weight-bearing legs, both HL and BFR increased knee extensor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength. In nonweight-bearing legs, knee extensor CSA and strength increased only in HL and decreased with BFR. CONCLUSION: HL and BFR resistance exercise were both effective exercise programs for the weight-bearing leg. However, BFR exercise was not as effective as HL resistance exercise in the nonweight-bearing leg. These data show that exercise that improved muscle CSA and strength in ambulatory weight-bearing conditions was not sufficient to maintain muscle function during unloading. For the preservation of muscle CSA and strength, BFR exercise should be considered an adjunct but not a primary exercise countermeasure for future space missions.

KW - Anabolic Impairment

KW - Exercise countermeasures

KW - Spaceflight

KW - ULLS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85020124343&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85020124343&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3357/AMHP.4566.2016

DO - 10.3357/AMHP.4566.2016

M3 - Article

C2 - 27634603

AN - SCOPUS:85020124343

VL - 87

SP - 688

EP - 696

JO - Aerospace medicine and human performance

JF - Aerospace medicine and human performance

SN - 2375-6314

IS - 8

ER -