Assessment of the DNA damaging potential of environmental chemicals using a quantitative high-throughput screening approach to measure p53 activation

Kristine L. Witt, Jui Hua Hsieh, Stephanie L. Smith-Roe, Menghang Xia, Ruili Huang, Jinghua Zhao, Scott S. Auerbach, Junguk Hur, Raymond R. Tice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Genotoxicity potential is a critical component of any comprehensive toxicological profile. Compounds that induce DNA or chromosomal damage often activate p53, a transcription factor essential to cell cycle regulation. Thus, within the US Tox21 Program, we screened a library of ∼10,000 (∼8,300 unique) environmental compounds and drugs for activation of the p53-signaling pathway using a quantitative high-throughput screening assay employing HCT-116 cells (p53+/+) containing a stably integrated β-lactamase reporter gene under control of the p53 response element (p53RE). Cells were exposed (-S9) for 16 hr at 15 concentrations (generally 1.2 nM to 92 μM) three times, independently. Excluding compounds that failed analytical chemistry analysis or were suspected of inducing assay interference, 365 (4.7%) of 7,849 unique compounds were concluded to activate p53. As part of an in-depth characterization of our results, we first compared them with results from traditional in vitro genotoxicity assays (bacterial mutation, chromosomal aberration); ∼15% of known, direct-acting genotoxicants in our library activated the p53RE. Mining the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database revealed that these p53 actives were significantly associated with increased expression of p53 downstream genes involved in DNA damage responses. Furthermore, 53 chemical substructures associated with genotoxicity were enriched in certain classes of p53 actives, for example, anthracyclines (antineoplastics) and vinca alkaloids (tubulin disruptors). Interestingly, the tubulin disruptors manifested unusual nonmonotonic concentration response curves suggesting activity through a unique p53 regulatory mechanism. Through the analysis of our results, we aim to define a role for this assay as one component of a comprehensive toxicological characterization of large compound libraries. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:494–507, 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)494-507
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Volume58
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2017

Fingerprint

Libraries
Response Elements
Tubulin
Toxicology
DNA
Toxicogenetics
Vinca Alkaloids
High-Throughput Screening Assays
HCT116 Cells
Anthracyclines
p53 Genes
Mutagens
Reporter Genes
Chromosome Aberrations
Antineoplastic Agents
DNA Damage
Cell Cycle
Transcription Factors
Databases
Mutation

Keywords

  • DNA damage response
  • HTS
  • genotoxicity
  • mutagenicity
  • p53 response element

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Assessment of the DNA damaging potential of environmental chemicals using a quantitative high-throughput screening approach to measure p53 activation. / Witt, Kristine L.; Hsieh, Jui Hua; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L.; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Zhao, Jinghua; Auerbach, Scott S.; Hur, Junguk; Tice, Raymond R.

In: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Vol. 58, No. 7, 08.2017, p. 494-507.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Witt, Kristine L. ; Hsieh, Jui Hua ; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L. ; Xia, Menghang ; Huang, Ruili ; Zhao, Jinghua ; Auerbach, Scott S. ; Hur, Junguk ; Tice, Raymond R. / Assessment of the DNA damaging potential of environmental chemicals using a quantitative high-throughput screening approach to measure p53 activation. In: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 2017 ; Vol. 58, No. 7. pp. 494-507.
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