Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction results in alterations in gait variability

Constantina O. Moraiti, Nicholas Stergiou, Haris S. Vasiliadis, Eustathios Motsis, Anastasios Georgoulis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: The temporal structure of gait variability has shown that healthy human gait exhibits long-range correlations and deterministic properties which allow the neuromuscular system to be flexible and adaptable to stresses. Pathology results in deterioration of these properties. We examined structure of gait variability after ACL reconstruction with either BPTB or quadrupled ST/G tendon autografts. Methods: Six patients with BPTB reconstruction, six with ST/G reconstruction and six healthy controls walked on a treadmill at their self-selected pace. Two minutes of continuous kinematic data were recorded with a 6-camera optoelectronic system. The nonlinear measure of the largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE) was estimated from the knee flexion-extension time series from 100 continuous walking strides to assess the structure of gait variability. Results: The reconstructed limbs in both reconstructed groups exhibited significantly larger LyE values than the control limbs (p<0.05), even though clinical outcomes indicated complete restoration. No significant differences were found between the two autografts. In addition, the intact contralateral leg produced significant higher LyE values as compared with the ACL-reconstructed leg in both groups. No interaction was found. Discussion: The larger LyE values indicate that the reconstructed knees of both reconstructed groups exhibit more divergence in the movement trajectories during gait. The larger Lye values found in the intact leg in both reconstructed groups could be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism. However, the increased divergence found in both limbs may present an alternative explanation for the impaired neuromuscular performance and increased susceptibility to future pathology, which is supported by the increased amount of osteoarthritis found in ACL-reconstructed patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-175
Number of pages7
JournalGait and Posture
Volume32
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

Fingerprint

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Gait
Leg
Extremities
Autografts
Knee
Lye
Pathology
Biomechanical Phenomena
Osteoarthritis
Tendons
Walking

Keywords

  • Gait
  • Lyapunov Exponent
  • Motion analysis
  • Nonlinear analysis
  • Variability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation

Cite this

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction results in alterations in gait variability. / Moraiti, Constantina O.; Stergiou, Nicholas; Vasiliadis, Haris S.; Motsis, Eustathios; Georgoulis, Anastasios.

In: Gait and Posture, Vol. 32, No. 2, 01.06.2010, p. 169-175.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Moraiti, Constantina O. ; Stergiou, Nicholas ; Vasiliadis, Haris S. ; Motsis, Eustathios ; Georgoulis, Anastasios. / Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction results in alterations in gait variability. In: Gait and Posture. 2010 ; Vol. 32, No. 2. pp. 169-175.
@article{ebace2fe5973423bbca8e125d3bc0dbc,
title = "Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction results in alterations in gait variability",
abstract = "Introduction: The temporal structure of gait variability has shown that healthy human gait exhibits long-range correlations and deterministic properties which allow the neuromuscular system to be flexible and adaptable to stresses. Pathology results in deterioration of these properties. We examined structure of gait variability after ACL reconstruction with either BPTB or quadrupled ST/G tendon autografts. Methods: Six patients with BPTB reconstruction, six with ST/G reconstruction and six healthy controls walked on a treadmill at their self-selected pace. Two minutes of continuous kinematic data were recorded with a 6-camera optoelectronic system. The nonlinear measure of the largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE) was estimated from the knee flexion-extension time series from 100 continuous walking strides to assess the structure of gait variability. Results: The reconstructed limbs in both reconstructed groups exhibited significantly larger LyE values than the control limbs (p<0.05), even though clinical outcomes indicated complete restoration. No significant differences were found between the two autografts. In addition, the intact contralateral leg produced significant higher LyE values as compared with the ACL-reconstructed leg in both groups. No interaction was found. Discussion: The larger LyE values indicate that the reconstructed knees of both reconstructed groups exhibit more divergence in the movement trajectories during gait. The larger Lye values found in the intact leg in both reconstructed groups could be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism. However, the increased divergence found in both limbs may present an alternative explanation for the impaired neuromuscular performance and increased susceptibility to future pathology, which is supported by the increased amount of osteoarthritis found in ACL-reconstructed patients.",
keywords = "Gait, Lyapunov Exponent, Motion analysis, Nonlinear analysis, Variability",
author = "Moraiti, {Constantina O.} and Nicholas Stergiou and Vasiliadis, {Haris S.} and Eustathios Motsis and Anastasios Georgoulis",
year = "2010",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.04.008",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "32",
pages = "169--175",
journal = "Gait and Posture",
issn = "0966-6362",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction results in alterations in gait variability

AU - Moraiti, Constantina O.

AU - Stergiou, Nicholas

AU - Vasiliadis, Haris S.

AU - Motsis, Eustathios

AU - Georgoulis, Anastasios

PY - 2010/6/1

Y1 - 2010/6/1

N2 - Introduction: The temporal structure of gait variability has shown that healthy human gait exhibits long-range correlations and deterministic properties which allow the neuromuscular system to be flexible and adaptable to stresses. Pathology results in deterioration of these properties. We examined structure of gait variability after ACL reconstruction with either BPTB or quadrupled ST/G tendon autografts. Methods: Six patients with BPTB reconstruction, six with ST/G reconstruction and six healthy controls walked on a treadmill at their self-selected pace. Two minutes of continuous kinematic data were recorded with a 6-camera optoelectronic system. The nonlinear measure of the largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE) was estimated from the knee flexion-extension time series from 100 continuous walking strides to assess the structure of gait variability. Results: The reconstructed limbs in both reconstructed groups exhibited significantly larger LyE values than the control limbs (p<0.05), even though clinical outcomes indicated complete restoration. No significant differences were found between the two autografts. In addition, the intact contralateral leg produced significant higher LyE values as compared with the ACL-reconstructed leg in both groups. No interaction was found. Discussion: The larger LyE values indicate that the reconstructed knees of both reconstructed groups exhibit more divergence in the movement trajectories during gait. The larger Lye values found in the intact leg in both reconstructed groups could be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism. However, the increased divergence found in both limbs may present an alternative explanation for the impaired neuromuscular performance and increased susceptibility to future pathology, which is supported by the increased amount of osteoarthritis found in ACL-reconstructed patients.

AB - Introduction: The temporal structure of gait variability has shown that healthy human gait exhibits long-range correlations and deterministic properties which allow the neuromuscular system to be flexible and adaptable to stresses. Pathology results in deterioration of these properties. We examined structure of gait variability after ACL reconstruction with either BPTB or quadrupled ST/G tendon autografts. Methods: Six patients with BPTB reconstruction, six with ST/G reconstruction and six healthy controls walked on a treadmill at their self-selected pace. Two minutes of continuous kinematic data were recorded with a 6-camera optoelectronic system. The nonlinear measure of the largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE) was estimated from the knee flexion-extension time series from 100 continuous walking strides to assess the structure of gait variability. Results: The reconstructed limbs in both reconstructed groups exhibited significantly larger LyE values than the control limbs (p<0.05), even though clinical outcomes indicated complete restoration. No significant differences were found between the two autografts. In addition, the intact contralateral leg produced significant higher LyE values as compared with the ACL-reconstructed leg in both groups. No interaction was found. Discussion: The larger LyE values indicate that the reconstructed knees of both reconstructed groups exhibit more divergence in the movement trajectories during gait. The larger Lye values found in the intact leg in both reconstructed groups could be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism. However, the increased divergence found in both limbs may present an alternative explanation for the impaired neuromuscular performance and increased susceptibility to future pathology, which is supported by the increased amount of osteoarthritis found in ACL-reconstructed patients.

KW - Gait

KW - Lyapunov Exponent

KW - Motion analysis

KW - Nonlinear analysis

KW - Variability

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77954660542&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77954660542&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.04.008

DO - 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.04.008

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 169

EP - 175

JO - Gait and Posture

JF - Gait and Posture

SN - 0966-6362

IS - 2

ER -