An experimental model system for HIV-1-induced brain injury

Howard Eliot Gendelman, Peter Genis, Marti Jett, Qi hui Zhai, Hans S L M Nottet

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Abstract

The pathological hallmark of HIV infection in brain is productive viral replication in cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage including brain macrophages, microglia and multinucleated giant cells (Koenig et al., 1986; Wiley et al., 1986; Gabuzda et al., 1986; Stoler et al., 1986). These cells secrete viral and cell encoded neurotoxins that lead to neuronal injury, glial proliferation and myelin pallor during advancing disease (Genis et al., 1992; Giulian et al., 1990, 1993; Pulliam et al., 1991). The apparent paradox between the distribution and numbers of virus infected cells and brain tissue pathology support indirect mechanisms for CNS damage (Epstein, 1993; Geleziunas et al., 1992; Merrill and Chen, 1992; Michaels et al., 1988; Price et al., 1988). First, brain macrophages and microglia can produce neurotoxins by secretion of viral proteins (for example, gp120) (Dawson et al., 1991; Merrill et al., 1989; Lipton et al., 1990; Lipton, 1993). Second, HIV primes macrophages for immune activation to produce neurotoxins including: cytokines (TNF(α and IL-1β), eicosanoids, quinolinate and nitric oxide (NO). Chronic immune stimulation mediated by opportunistic infections and chronic interferon gamma (IFNγ) production (in and outside the CNS) continues the process of macrophage activation leading to progressive neural injury. The hyperresponsiveness of HIV-infected macrophages to activation results in production of cellular factors that activate uninfected macrophages. This suggests that HIV-infected macrophages are both perpetrators and amplifiers for neurotoxic activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-193
Number of pages5
JournalAdvances in Neuroimmunology
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1994

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Brain Injuries
Macrophage Activation
HIV-1
Neurotoxins
Theoretical Models
Macrophages
Brain
HIV
Microglia
Quinolinic Acid
Pallor
Eicosanoids
Opportunistic Infections
Wounds and Injuries
Viral Proteins
Giant Cells
Phagocytes
Myelin Sheath
Interleukin-1
Neuroglia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Immunology

Cite this

An experimental model system for HIV-1-induced brain injury. / Gendelman, Howard Eliot; Genis, Peter; Jett, Marti; Zhai, Qi hui; Nottet, Hans S L M.

In: Advances in Neuroimmunology, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1994, p. 189-193.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gendelman, Howard Eliot ; Genis, Peter ; Jett, Marti ; Zhai, Qi hui ; Nottet, Hans S L M. / An experimental model system for HIV-1-induced brain injury. In: Advances in Neuroimmunology. 1994 ; Vol. 4, No. 3. pp. 189-193.
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