Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver but worsens liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice

Hyo Jung Kwon, Young Suk Won, Ogyi Park, Binxia Chang, Michael J. Duryee, Geoffrey E. Thiele, Akiko Matsumoto, Surendra Singh, Mohamed A. Abdelmegeed, Byoung Joon Song, Toshihiro Kawamoto, Vasilis Vasiliou, Geoffrey Milton Thiele, Bin Gao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism. Approximately 40-50% of East Asians carry an inactive ALDH2 gene and exhibit acetaldehyde accumulation after alcohol consumption. However, the role of ALDH2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury remains obscure. In the present study, wild-type and ALDH2-/- mice were subjected to ethanol feeding and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment, and liver injury was assessed. Compared with wild-type mice, ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice had higher levels of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct and greater hepatic inflammation, with higher hepatic interleukin (IL)-6 expression but surprisingly lower levels of steatosis and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Higher IL-6 levels were also detected in ethanol-treated precision-cut liver slices from ALDH2-/- mice and in Kupffer cells isolated from ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice than those levels in wild-type mice. In vitro incubation with MAA enhanced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated stimulation of IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. In agreement with these findings, hepatic activation of the major IL-6 downstream signaling molecule signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was higher in ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice than in wild-type mice. An additional deletion of hepatic STAT3 increased steatosis and hepatocellular damage in ALDH2-/- mice. Finally, ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice were more prone to CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis than ethanol-fed wild-type mice. Conclusion: ALDH2-/- mice are resistant to ethanol-induced steatosis but prone to inflammation and fibrosis by way of MAA-mediated paracrine activation of IL-6 in Kupffer cells. These findings suggest that alcohol, by way of acetaldehyde and its associated adducts, stimulates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis independent from causing hepatocyte death, and that ALDH2-deficient individuals may be resistant to steatosis and blood ALT elevation, but are prone to liver inflammation and fibrosis following alcohol consumption. (Hepatology 2014;60:146-157)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-157
Number of pages12
JournalHepatology
Volume60
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2014

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Alcoholic Fatty Liver
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
Liver Cirrhosis
Acetaldehyde
Ethanol
Inflammation
Liver
Interleukin-6
Kupffer Cells
Malondialdehyde
STAT3 Transcription Factor
Alanine Transaminase
Alcohol Drinking
Fibrosis
Alcohols
mouse ALDH2 protein
Carbon Tetrachloride
Wounds and Injuries
Gastroenterology
Lipopolysaccharides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

Cite this

Kwon, H. J., Won, Y. S., Park, O., Chang, B., Duryee, M. J., Thiele, G. E., ... Gao, B. (2014). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver but worsens liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice. Hepatology, 60(1), 146-157. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.27036

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver but worsens liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice. / Kwon, Hyo Jung; Won, Young Suk; Park, Ogyi; Chang, Binxia; Duryee, Michael J.; Thiele, Geoffrey E.; Matsumoto, Akiko; Singh, Surendra; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung Joon; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Thiele, Geoffrey Milton; Gao, Bin.

In: Hepatology, Vol. 60, No. 1, 07.2014, p. 146-157.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kwon, HJ, Won, YS, Park, O, Chang, B, Duryee, MJ, Thiele, GE, Matsumoto, A, Singh, S, Abdelmegeed, MA, Song, BJ, Kawamoto, T, Vasiliou, V, Thiele, GM & Gao, B 2014, 'Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver but worsens liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice', Hepatology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 146-157. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.27036
Kwon, Hyo Jung ; Won, Young Suk ; Park, Ogyi ; Chang, Binxia ; Duryee, Michael J. ; Thiele, Geoffrey E. ; Matsumoto, Akiko ; Singh, Surendra ; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. ; Song, Byoung Joon ; Kawamoto, Toshihiro ; Vasiliou, Vasilis ; Thiele, Geoffrey Milton ; Gao, Bin. / Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver but worsens liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice. In: Hepatology. 2014 ; Vol. 60, No. 1. pp. 146-157.
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abstract = "Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism. Approximately 40-50{\%} of East Asians carry an inactive ALDH2 gene and exhibit acetaldehyde accumulation after alcohol consumption. However, the role of ALDH2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury remains obscure. In the present study, wild-type and ALDH2-/- mice were subjected to ethanol feeding and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment, and liver injury was assessed. Compared with wild-type mice, ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice had higher levels of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct and greater hepatic inflammation, with higher hepatic interleukin (IL)-6 expression but surprisingly lower levels of steatosis and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Higher IL-6 levels were also detected in ethanol-treated precision-cut liver slices from ALDH2-/- mice and in Kupffer cells isolated from ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice than those levels in wild-type mice. In vitro incubation with MAA enhanced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated stimulation of IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. In agreement with these findings, hepatic activation of the major IL-6 downstream signaling molecule signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was higher in ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice than in wild-type mice. An additional deletion of hepatic STAT3 increased steatosis and hepatocellular damage in ALDH2-/- mice. Finally, ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice were more prone to CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis than ethanol-fed wild-type mice. Conclusion: ALDH2-/- mice are resistant to ethanol-induced steatosis but prone to inflammation and fibrosis by way of MAA-mediated paracrine activation of IL-6 in Kupffer cells. These findings suggest that alcohol, by way of acetaldehyde and its associated adducts, stimulates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis independent from causing hepatocyte death, and that ALDH2-deficient individuals may be resistant to steatosis and blood ALT elevation, but are prone to liver inflammation and fibrosis following alcohol consumption. (Hepatology 2014;60:146-157)",
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T1 - Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver but worsens liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice

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AU - Won, Young Suk

AU - Park, Ogyi

AU - Chang, Binxia

AU - Duryee, Michael J.

AU - Thiele, Geoffrey E.

AU - Matsumoto, Akiko

AU - Singh, Surendra

AU - Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.

AU - Song, Byoung Joon

AU - Kawamoto, Toshihiro

AU - Vasiliou, Vasilis

AU - Thiele, Geoffrey Milton

AU - Gao, Bin

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N2 - Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism. Approximately 40-50% of East Asians carry an inactive ALDH2 gene and exhibit acetaldehyde accumulation after alcohol consumption. However, the role of ALDH2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury remains obscure. In the present study, wild-type and ALDH2-/- mice were subjected to ethanol feeding and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment, and liver injury was assessed. Compared with wild-type mice, ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice had higher levels of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct and greater hepatic inflammation, with higher hepatic interleukin (IL)-6 expression but surprisingly lower levels of steatosis and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Higher IL-6 levels were also detected in ethanol-treated precision-cut liver slices from ALDH2-/- mice and in Kupffer cells isolated from ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice than those levels in wild-type mice. In vitro incubation with MAA enhanced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated stimulation of IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. In agreement with these findings, hepatic activation of the major IL-6 downstream signaling molecule signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was higher in ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice than in wild-type mice. An additional deletion of hepatic STAT3 increased steatosis and hepatocellular damage in ALDH2-/- mice. Finally, ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice were more prone to CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis than ethanol-fed wild-type mice. Conclusion: ALDH2-/- mice are resistant to ethanol-induced steatosis but prone to inflammation and fibrosis by way of MAA-mediated paracrine activation of IL-6 in Kupffer cells. These findings suggest that alcohol, by way of acetaldehyde and its associated adducts, stimulates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis independent from causing hepatocyte death, and that ALDH2-deficient individuals may be resistant to steatosis and blood ALT elevation, but are prone to liver inflammation and fibrosis following alcohol consumption. (Hepatology 2014;60:146-157)

AB - Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism. Approximately 40-50% of East Asians carry an inactive ALDH2 gene and exhibit acetaldehyde accumulation after alcohol consumption. However, the role of ALDH2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury remains obscure. In the present study, wild-type and ALDH2-/- mice were subjected to ethanol feeding and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment, and liver injury was assessed. Compared with wild-type mice, ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice had higher levels of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct and greater hepatic inflammation, with higher hepatic interleukin (IL)-6 expression but surprisingly lower levels of steatosis and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Higher IL-6 levels were also detected in ethanol-treated precision-cut liver slices from ALDH2-/- mice and in Kupffer cells isolated from ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice than those levels in wild-type mice. In vitro incubation with MAA enhanced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated stimulation of IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. In agreement with these findings, hepatic activation of the major IL-6 downstream signaling molecule signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was higher in ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice than in wild-type mice. An additional deletion of hepatic STAT3 increased steatosis and hepatocellular damage in ALDH2-/- mice. Finally, ethanol-fed ALDH2-/- mice were more prone to CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis than ethanol-fed wild-type mice. Conclusion: ALDH2-/- mice are resistant to ethanol-induced steatosis but prone to inflammation and fibrosis by way of MAA-mediated paracrine activation of IL-6 in Kupffer cells. These findings suggest that alcohol, by way of acetaldehyde and its associated adducts, stimulates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis independent from causing hepatocyte death, and that ALDH2-deficient individuals may be resistant to steatosis and blood ALT elevation, but are prone to liver inflammation and fibrosis following alcohol consumption. (Hepatology 2014;60:146-157)

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