Abstract

Alcohol impairs resolution of respiratory viral infections. Numerous immune response pathways are altered in response to alcohol misuse, including alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction in the lung. We hypothesized that mucociliary clearance-mediated innate immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) would be compromised by alcohol exposure. Cilia were assayed using Sisson-Ammons Video Analysis by quantitating the average number of motile points in multiple whole field measurements of mouse tracheal epithelial cells grown on an air-liquid interface. Pretreatment with ethanol alone (100 mM for 24 hours) had no effect on the number of motile cilia. A single dose (TCID50 1 × 105) of RSV resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in motile cilia after 2 days. Ethanol pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) potentiated RSV-induced cilia loss by 2 days. Combined RSV and ethanol treatment led to a sustained activation-induced auto-downregulation of PKC epsilon (PKCε). Ethanol-induced enhancement of ciliated cell detachment was confirmed by dynein ELISA and LDH activity from the supernates. RSV-induced cilia loss was evident until 7 days, when RSV-only infected cells demonstrated no significant cilia loss vs. control cells. However, cells pretreated with ethanol showed significant cilia loss until 10 days post-RSV infection. To address the functional significance of ethanol-enhanced cilia detachment, mice fed alcohol ad libitum (20% for 12 weeks) were infected once with RSV, and clearance was measured by plaque-forming assay from lung homogenates for up to 7 days. After 3 days, RSV plaque formation was no longer detected from the lungs of control mice, while significant (p < 0.01) RSV plaque-forming units were detected at 7 days in alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol-fed mice demonstrated enhanced cilia loss and delayed cilia recovery from tracheal measurements in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, but not PKCε KO mice. These data suggest that alcohol worsens RSV-mediated injury to ciliated epithelium in a PKCε-dependent manner.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAlcohol
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
Cilia
Viruses
Epithelium
alcohol
Alcohols
Wounds and Injuries
Ethanol
Lung
Protein Kinase C-epsilon
immunity
Mucociliary Clearance
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Dyneins
activation
Virus Diseases
Inbred C57BL Mouse
Innate Immunity
video
Respiratory Tract Infections

Keywords

  • Ciliary beat frequency
  • Mouse tracheal epithelial cell
  • Protein kinase C
  • Respiratory syncytial virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Biochemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Neurology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

Alcohol potentiates RSV-mediated injury to ciliated airway epithelium. / Wyatt, Todd A; Bailey, Kristina L; Simet Chadwick, Samantha M; Warren, Kristi J.; Sweeter, Jenea M.; DeVasure, Jane M.; Pavlik, Jaqueline A.; Sisson, Joseph Harold.

In: Alcohol, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Alcohol impairs resolution of respiratory viral infections. Numerous immune response pathways are altered in response to alcohol misuse, including alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction in the lung. We hypothesized that mucociliary clearance-mediated innate immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) would be compromised by alcohol exposure. Cilia were assayed using Sisson-Ammons Video Analysis by quantitating the average number of motile points in multiple whole field measurements of mouse tracheal epithelial cells grown on an air-liquid interface. Pretreatment with ethanol alone (100 mM for 24 hours) had no effect on the number of motile cilia. A single dose (TCID50 1 × 105) of RSV resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in motile cilia after 2 days. Ethanol pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) potentiated RSV-induced cilia loss by 2 days. Combined RSV and ethanol treatment led to a sustained activation-induced auto-downregulation of PKC epsilon (PKCε). Ethanol-induced enhancement of ciliated cell detachment was confirmed by dynein ELISA and LDH activity from the supernates. RSV-induced cilia loss was evident until 7 days, when RSV-only infected cells demonstrated no significant cilia loss vs. control cells. However, cells pretreated with ethanol showed significant cilia loss until 10 days post-RSV infection. To address the functional significance of ethanol-enhanced cilia detachment, mice fed alcohol ad libitum (20{\%} for 12 weeks) were infected once with RSV, and clearance was measured by plaque-forming assay from lung homogenates for up to 7 days. After 3 days, RSV plaque formation was no longer detected from the lungs of control mice, while significant (p < 0.01) RSV plaque-forming units were detected at 7 days in alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol-fed mice demonstrated enhanced cilia loss and delayed cilia recovery from tracheal measurements in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, but not PKCε KO mice. These data suggest that alcohol worsens RSV-mediated injury to ciliated epithelium in a PKCε-dependent manner.",
keywords = "Ciliary beat frequency, Mouse tracheal epithelial cell, Protein kinase C, Respiratory syncytial virus",
author = "Wyatt, {Todd A} and Bailey, {Kristina L} and {Simet Chadwick}, {Samantha M} and Warren, {Kristi J.} and Sweeter, {Jenea M.} and DeVasure, {Jane M.} and Pavlik, {Jaqueline A.} and Sisson, {Joseph Harold}",
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AU - Wyatt, Todd A

AU - Bailey, Kristina L

AU - Simet Chadwick, Samantha M

AU - Warren, Kristi J.

AU - Sweeter, Jenea M.

AU - DeVasure, Jane M.

AU - Pavlik, Jaqueline A.

AU - Sisson, Joseph Harold

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - Alcohol impairs resolution of respiratory viral infections. Numerous immune response pathways are altered in response to alcohol misuse, including alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction in the lung. We hypothesized that mucociliary clearance-mediated innate immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) would be compromised by alcohol exposure. Cilia were assayed using Sisson-Ammons Video Analysis by quantitating the average number of motile points in multiple whole field measurements of mouse tracheal epithelial cells grown on an air-liquid interface. Pretreatment with ethanol alone (100 mM for 24 hours) had no effect on the number of motile cilia. A single dose (TCID50 1 × 105) of RSV resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in motile cilia after 2 days. Ethanol pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) potentiated RSV-induced cilia loss by 2 days. Combined RSV and ethanol treatment led to a sustained activation-induced auto-downregulation of PKC epsilon (PKCε). Ethanol-induced enhancement of ciliated cell detachment was confirmed by dynein ELISA and LDH activity from the supernates. RSV-induced cilia loss was evident until 7 days, when RSV-only infected cells demonstrated no significant cilia loss vs. control cells. However, cells pretreated with ethanol showed significant cilia loss until 10 days post-RSV infection. To address the functional significance of ethanol-enhanced cilia detachment, mice fed alcohol ad libitum (20% for 12 weeks) were infected once with RSV, and clearance was measured by plaque-forming assay from lung homogenates for up to 7 days. After 3 days, RSV plaque formation was no longer detected from the lungs of control mice, while significant (p < 0.01) RSV plaque-forming units were detected at 7 days in alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol-fed mice demonstrated enhanced cilia loss and delayed cilia recovery from tracheal measurements in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, but not PKCε KO mice. These data suggest that alcohol worsens RSV-mediated injury to ciliated epithelium in a PKCε-dependent manner.

AB - Alcohol impairs resolution of respiratory viral infections. Numerous immune response pathways are altered in response to alcohol misuse, including alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction in the lung. We hypothesized that mucociliary clearance-mediated innate immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) would be compromised by alcohol exposure. Cilia were assayed using Sisson-Ammons Video Analysis by quantitating the average number of motile points in multiple whole field measurements of mouse tracheal epithelial cells grown on an air-liquid interface. Pretreatment with ethanol alone (100 mM for 24 hours) had no effect on the number of motile cilia. A single dose (TCID50 1 × 105) of RSV resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in motile cilia after 2 days. Ethanol pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) potentiated RSV-induced cilia loss by 2 days. Combined RSV and ethanol treatment led to a sustained activation-induced auto-downregulation of PKC epsilon (PKCε). Ethanol-induced enhancement of ciliated cell detachment was confirmed by dynein ELISA and LDH activity from the supernates. RSV-induced cilia loss was evident until 7 days, when RSV-only infected cells demonstrated no significant cilia loss vs. control cells. However, cells pretreated with ethanol showed significant cilia loss until 10 days post-RSV infection. To address the functional significance of ethanol-enhanced cilia detachment, mice fed alcohol ad libitum (20% for 12 weeks) were infected once with RSV, and clearance was measured by plaque-forming assay from lung homogenates for up to 7 days. After 3 days, RSV plaque formation was no longer detected from the lungs of control mice, while significant (p < 0.01) RSV plaque-forming units were detected at 7 days in alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol-fed mice demonstrated enhanced cilia loss and delayed cilia recovery from tracheal measurements in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, but not PKCε KO mice. These data suggest that alcohol worsens RSV-mediated injury to ciliated epithelium in a PKCε-dependent manner.

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KW - Mouse tracheal epithelial cell

KW - Protein kinase C

KW - Respiratory syncytial virus

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