Acute effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle strength and power output

Sarah M. Marek, Joel T Cramer, A. Louise Fincher, Laurie L. Massey, Suzanne M. Dangelmaier, Sushmita Purkayastha, Kristi A. Fitz, Julie Y. Culbertson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

201 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: Stretching is commonly used as a technique for injury prevention in the clinical setting. Our findings may improve the understanding of the neuromuscular responses to stretching and help clinicians make decisions for rehabilitation progression and return to play. Objective: To examine the short-term effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on peak torque (PT), mean power output (MP), active range of motion (AROM), passive range of motion (PROM), electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles during voluntary maximal concentric isokinetic leg extensions at 60 and 300°·s-1. Design: A randomized, counterbalanced, cross-sectional, repeated-measures design. Setting: A university human research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten female (age, 23 ± 3 years) and 9 male (age, 21 ± 3 years) apparently healthy and recreationally active volunteers. Intervention(s): Four static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises to stretch the leg extensor muscles of the dominant limb during 2 separate, randomly ordered laboratory visits. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PT and MP were measured at 60 and 300°·s-1, EMG and MMG signals were recorded, and AROM and PROM were measured at the knee joint before and after the stretching exercises. Results: Static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching reduced PT (P = .051), MP (P = .041), and EMG amplitude (P = .013) from prestretching to poststretching at 60 and 300°·s-1 (P < .05). The AROM (P < .001) and PROM (P = .001) increased as a result of the static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. The MMG amplitude increased in the rectus femoris muscle in response to the static stretching at 60°·s-1 (P = .031), but no other changes in MMG amplitude were observed (P > .05). Conclusions: Both static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching caused similar deficits in strength, power output, and muscle activation at both slow (60°·s-1) and fast (300°·s-1) velocities. The effect sizes, however, corresponding to these stretching-induced changes were small, which suggests the need for practitioners to consider a risk-to-benefit ratio when incorporating static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-103
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Athletic Training
Volume40
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2005

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Muscle Stretching Exercises
Muscle Strength
Articular Range of Motion
Torque
Quadriceps Muscle
Leg
Exercise
Muscles
Knee Joint
Volunteers
Skeletal Muscle
Rehabilitation
Extremities
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Wounds and Injuries
Research

Keywords

  • Electromyography
  • Isokinetics
  • Mechanomyography
  • Peak torque
  • Range of motion
  • Static stretching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Marek, S. M., Cramer, J. T., Fincher, A. L., Massey, L. L., Dangelmaier, S. M., Purkayastha, S., ... Culbertson, J. Y. (2005). Acute effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle strength and power output. Journal of Athletic Training, 40(2), 94-103.

Acute effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle strength and power output. / Marek, Sarah M.; Cramer, Joel T; Fincher, A. Louise; Massey, Laurie L.; Dangelmaier, Suzanne M.; Purkayastha, Sushmita; Fitz, Kristi A.; Culbertson, Julie Y.

In: Journal of Athletic Training, Vol. 40, No. 2, 01.04.2005, p. 94-103.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marek, SM, Cramer, JT, Fincher, AL, Massey, LL, Dangelmaier, SM, Purkayastha, S, Fitz, KA & Culbertson, JY 2005, 'Acute effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle strength and power output', Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 94-103.
Marek, Sarah M. ; Cramer, Joel T ; Fincher, A. Louise ; Massey, Laurie L. ; Dangelmaier, Suzanne M. ; Purkayastha, Sushmita ; Fitz, Kristi A. ; Culbertson, Julie Y. / Acute effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle strength and power output. In: Journal of Athletic Training. 2005 ; Vol. 40, No. 2. pp. 94-103.
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AU - Dangelmaier, Suzanne M.

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