The numbers and locations of virus-specific CD8+ T cells relative to the numbers and locations of their infected cell targets is thought to be critical in determining outcomes that range from clearance to chronic persistent infections. We describe here a method for assessing the spatial and quantitative relationships between immune effector (E) virus-specific CD8+ T cells and infected targets (T) that combines in situ tetramer (IST) staining to detect virus-specific CD8+ T cells and in situ hybridization (ISH) to detect viral-RNA+ cells in the tissues where the battle between immune defenses and infection takes place. The combination of IST staining and ISH, abbreviated ISTH, enables visualization and mapping of the locations of immune effector cells and targets, and facile determination of E:T ratios. These parameters in turn can then be used to determine the relationships between spatial proximity, and the timing and magnitude of the immune response that predict outcomes in early infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)