A review of non-medication interventions to improve the academic performance of children and youth with ADHD

Alexandra L. Trout, Torri Ortiz Lienemann, Robert Reid, Michael H. Epstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Scopus citations


Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for academic failure. Although studies have evaluated the effects of medication on academic outcomes, the literature on non-medication interventions has not received equal attention. This review examined 41 studies that evaluated the impact of non-medication interventions on the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The findings revealed that a broad range of traditional and nontraditional interventions has been used to improve students' academic outcomes, yet systematic lines of research were clearly missing, Moreover, important demographic and descriptive information, such as participant characteristics and classroom settings, were often poorly defined and generally did not reflect the current population of students with ADHD. Despite some indications of promise, significant limitations in the literature allow for few conclusions about intervention effects and generalization, Further systematic research is needed to determine which academic intervention methods hold the most promise for children and youth with ADHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-226
Number of pages20
JournalRemedial and Special Education
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2007


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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