High doses of sadium saccharin, a non-genotoxic chemical, lead to the formation of silicate-containing precipitate and microcrystals in urine of male rats. Differences in urinary protein, pH, sodium and other factors affect silicatecontaining precipitate and microcrystal formation as well as the bladder effects of sodium saccharin. Total urinary silicon concentration (mostly soluble) in sodium saccharin-fed rats is similar to or lower than the concentration in control rats. Binding of saccharin to male rat urinary proteins was demonstrated by equilibrium-gel filtration. We propose that by binding to urinary proteins under appropriate conditions, saccharin produces a nidus for the formation of silicatecontaining precipitate and crystals. These appear to be cytotoxic to the superficial bladder epithelium, with cell death resulting in regenerative hyperplasia. Factors that influence the formation of these silicate-containing materials might provide a rationale for sex, species, dose and dietary differences in response to sodium saccharin.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research