A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

Jae Hwan You, Gareth Howell, Asit K Pattnaik, Fernando A. Osorio, Julian A. Hiscox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations


Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)34-47
Number of pages14
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 15 2008



  • Arterivirus
  • Confocal
  • Cytoplasm
  • FLIP
  • FRAP
  • Nuclear export
  • Nuclear import
  • Nucleocapsid protein
  • Nucleolar
  • Nucleolus
  • Nucleus
  • Virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology

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