A conceptual framework for nonkin food sharing: Timing and currency of benefits

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Ian C. Gilby

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

92 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many animal species, from arthropods to apes, share food. This paper presents a new framework that categorizes nonkin food sharing according to two axes: (1) the interval between sharing and receiving the benefits of sharing, and (2) the currency units in which benefits accrue to the sharer (especially food versus nonfood). Sharers can obtain immediate benefits from increased foraging efficiency, predation avoidance, mate provisioning, or manipulative mutualism. Reciprocity, trade, status enhancement and group augmentation can delay benefits. When benefits are delayed or when food is exchanged for nonfood benefits, maintaining sharing can become more difficult because animals face discounting and currency conversion problems. Explanations that involve delayed or nonfood benefits may require specialized adaptations to account for timing and currency-exchange problems. The immediate, selfish fitness benefits that a sharer may gain through by-product or manipulative mutualism, however, apply to various food-sharing situations across many species and may provide a simpler, more general explanation of sharing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)603-614
Number of pages12
JournalAnimal Behaviour
Volume67
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2004

Fingerprint

mutualism
currency
conceptual framework
food
Pongidae
arthropods
animals
foraging
predation
foraging efficiency
reciprocity
arthropod
fitness
animal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology

Cite this

A conceptual framework for nonkin food sharing : Timing and currency of benefits. / Stevens, Jeffrey R.; Gilby, Ian C.

In: Animal Behaviour, Vol. 67, No. 4, 04.2004, p. 603-614.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{656f11fae56f4863b97fe79a87c7bd85,
title = "A conceptual framework for nonkin food sharing: Timing and currency of benefits",
abstract = "Many animal species, from arthropods to apes, share food. This paper presents a new framework that categorizes nonkin food sharing according to two axes: (1) the interval between sharing and receiving the benefits of sharing, and (2) the currency units in which benefits accrue to the sharer (especially food versus nonfood). Sharers can obtain immediate benefits from increased foraging efficiency, predation avoidance, mate provisioning, or manipulative mutualism. Reciprocity, trade, status enhancement and group augmentation can delay benefits. When benefits are delayed or when food is exchanged for nonfood benefits, maintaining sharing can become more difficult because animals face discounting and currency conversion problems. Explanations that involve delayed or nonfood benefits may require specialized adaptations to account for timing and currency-exchange problems. The immediate, selfish fitness benefits that a sharer may gain through by-product or manipulative mutualism, however, apply to various food-sharing situations across many species and may provide a simpler, more general explanation of sharing.",
author = "Stevens, {Jeffrey R.} and Gilby, {Ian C.}",
year = "2004",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.04.012",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "67",
pages = "603--614",
journal = "Animal Behaviour",
issn = "0003-3472",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A conceptual framework for nonkin food sharing

T2 - Timing and currency of benefits

AU - Stevens, Jeffrey R.

AU - Gilby, Ian C.

PY - 2004/4

Y1 - 2004/4

N2 - Many animal species, from arthropods to apes, share food. This paper presents a new framework that categorizes nonkin food sharing according to two axes: (1) the interval between sharing and receiving the benefits of sharing, and (2) the currency units in which benefits accrue to the sharer (especially food versus nonfood). Sharers can obtain immediate benefits from increased foraging efficiency, predation avoidance, mate provisioning, or manipulative mutualism. Reciprocity, trade, status enhancement and group augmentation can delay benefits. When benefits are delayed or when food is exchanged for nonfood benefits, maintaining sharing can become more difficult because animals face discounting and currency conversion problems. Explanations that involve delayed or nonfood benefits may require specialized adaptations to account for timing and currency-exchange problems. The immediate, selfish fitness benefits that a sharer may gain through by-product or manipulative mutualism, however, apply to various food-sharing situations across many species and may provide a simpler, more general explanation of sharing.

AB - Many animal species, from arthropods to apes, share food. This paper presents a new framework that categorizes nonkin food sharing according to two axes: (1) the interval between sharing and receiving the benefits of sharing, and (2) the currency units in which benefits accrue to the sharer (especially food versus nonfood). Sharers can obtain immediate benefits from increased foraging efficiency, predation avoidance, mate provisioning, or manipulative mutualism. Reciprocity, trade, status enhancement and group augmentation can delay benefits. When benefits are delayed or when food is exchanged for nonfood benefits, maintaining sharing can become more difficult because animals face discounting and currency conversion problems. Explanations that involve delayed or nonfood benefits may require specialized adaptations to account for timing and currency-exchange problems. The immediate, selfish fitness benefits that a sharer may gain through by-product or manipulative mutualism, however, apply to various food-sharing situations across many species and may provide a simpler, more general explanation of sharing.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1442316224&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1442316224&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.04.012

DO - 10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.04.012

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:1442316224

VL - 67

SP - 603

EP - 614

JO - Animal Behaviour

JF - Animal Behaviour

SN - 0003-3472

IS - 4

ER -