Carol B Toris, PhD

Professor

  • 3712 Citations
  • 32 h-Index
1984 …2019
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Research Output 1984 2019

2019
1 Citation (Scopus)

A Highly Effective and Ultra-Long-Acting Anti-Glaucoma Drug, with a Novel Periorbital Delivery Method

Woodward, D. F., Wang, J. W., Coleman, R. A., Woodrooffe, A. J., Clark, K. L., Stamer, W. D., Tao, G., Fan, S. & Toris, C. B., Jun 2019, In : Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 35, 5, p. 265-277 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Glaucoma
Intraocular Pressure
Esters
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Ophthalmic Solutions

Antiglaucoma EP2 Agonists: A long road that led somewhere

Woodward, D. F., Wang, J. W., Stamer, W. D., Lütjen-Drecoll, E., Krauss, A. H. P. & Toris, C. B., Nov 2019, In : Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 35, 9, p. 469-474 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Drug Approval
Industry
Pharmacology
Research
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Chinese and Caucasian adults

Fan, S., Guo, T., Chen, B., Xiong, J., Havens, S., Gulati, V. & Toris, C. B., Jan 1 2019, In : British Journal of Ophthalmology.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Intraocular Pressure
Aqueous Humor
Anterior Chamber
Glaucoma
Cornea

Effect of Timolol on Aqueous Humor Outflow Facility in Healthy Human Eyes

Kazemi, A., McLaren, J. W., Trese, M. G. J., Toris, C. B., Gulati, V., Fan, S., Reed, D. M., Kristoff, T., Gilbert, J., Moroi, S. E. & Sit, A. J., Jun 2019, In : American journal of ophthalmology. 202, p. 126-132 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Timolol
Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Trabecular Meshwork
Supine Position

Response: Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Blood Flow and Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: the Effect of Orgasm and Sexual Activity

Patel, P., Harris, A., Toris, C., Tobe, L., Lang, M., Belamkar, A., Ng, A., Vercellin, A. C. V., Mathew, S. & Siesky, B., Apr 1 2019, In : Journal of Glaucoma. 28, 4, p. E66-E67

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Orgasm
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Intraocular Pressure
Sexual Behavior
Blood Pressure
1 Citation (Scopus)

The affinity, intrinsic activity and selectivity of a structurally novel EP 2 receptor agonist at human prostanoid receptors

Coleman, R. A., Woodrooffe, A. J., Clark, K. L., Toris, C. B., Fan, S., Wang, J. W. & Woodward, D. F., Mar 2019, In : British Journal of Pharmacology. 176, 5, p. 687-698 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tocolytic Agents
Prostaglandins
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Ocular Hypotension
Thromboxane Receptors

The future of canine glaucoma therapy

Komáromy, A. M., Bras, D., Esson, D. W., Fellman, R. L., Grozdanic, S. D., Kagemann, L., Miller, P. E., Moroi, S. E., Plummer, C. E., Sapienza, J. S., Storey, E. S., Teixeira, L. B., Toris, C. B. & Webb, T. R., Sep 1 2019, In : Veterinary Ophthalmology. 22, 5, p. 726-740 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
glaucoma
Glaucoma
Canidae
therapeutics
dogs
2018
17 Citations (Scopus)

Consensus recommendations for trabecular meshwork cell isolation, characterization and culture

Keller, K. E., Bhattacharya, S. K., Borrás, T., Brunner, T. M., Chansangpetch, S., Clark, A. F., Dismuke, W. M., Du, Y., Elliott, M. H., Ethier, C. R., Faralli, J. A., Freddo, T. F., Fuchshofer, R., Giovingo, M., Gong, H., Gonzalez, P., Huang, A., Johnstone, M. A., Kaufman, P. L., Kelley, M. J. & 37 others, Knepper, P. A., Kopczynski, C. C., Kuchtey, J. G., Kuchtey, R. W., Kuehn, M. H., Lieberman, R. L., Lin, S. C., Liton, P., Liu, Y., Lütjen-Drecoll, E., Mao, W., Masis-Solano, M., McDonnell, F., McDowell, C. M., Overby, D. R., Pattabiraman, P. P., Raghunathan, V. K., Rao, P. V., Rhee, D. J., Chowdhury, U. R., Russell, P., Samples, J. R., Schwartz, D., Stubbs, E. B., Tamm, E. R., Tan, J. C., Toris, C. B., Torrejon, K. Y., Vranka, J. A., Wirtz, M. K., Yorio, T., Zhang, J., Zode, G. S., Fautsch, M. P., Peters, D. M., Acott, T. S. & Stamer, W. D., Jun 2018, In : Experimental Eye Research. 171, p. 164-173 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

Trabecular Meshwork
Cell Separation
Cell Culture Techniques
Ocular Hypertension
Intraocular Pressure
1 Citation (Scopus)

Consequences of puberty on efficacy of intraocular pressure-lowering drugs in male Dutch-belted rabbits

Hays, C. L., Okafor, K. C., Fan, S., High, R., Singh, D. P. & Toris, C. B., Jan 1 2018, In : Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 34, 1-2, p. 76-84 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Puberty
Intraocular Pressure
Rabbits
latanoprost
Pharmaceutical Preparations
6 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of a Novel Selective EP2 Receptor Agonist, Omidenepag Isopropyl, on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Laser-Induced Ocular Hypertensive Monkeys

Fuwa, M., Toris, C. B., Fan, S., Taniguchi, T., Ichikawa, M., Odani-Kawabata, N., Iwamura, R., Yoneda, K., Matsugi, T., Shams, N. K. & Zhang, J. Z., Sep 2018, In : Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 34, 7, p. 531-537 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Haplorhini
Lasers
Fluorophotometry
3 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Blood Flow and Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma: A Review

Patel, P., Harris, A., Toris, C., Tobe, L., Lang, M., Belamkar, A., Ng, A., Verticchio Vercellin, A. C., Mathew, S. & Siesky, B., Dec 1 2018, In : Journal of Glaucoma. 27, 12, p. 1037-1041 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Intraocular Pressure
Blood Pressure
Estrogens
Optic Nerve Diseases

Quantitative proteomic analysis of human aqueous humor using iTRAQ 4plex labeling

Trzeciecka, A., Pattabiraman, P., Piqueras, M. C., Toris, C. & Bhattacharya, S. K., Jan 1 2018, Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press Inc., p. 89-95 7 p. (Methods in Molecular Biology; vol. 1695).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Aqueous Humor
Proteome
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Proteomics
Software
2 Citations (Scopus)

Shotgun sphingolipid analysis of human aqueous humor

Trzeciecka, A., Arbelo, U., Barron, A., Edwards, G., Sampathkumar, S., Toris, C. & Bhattacharya, S. K., Jan 1 2018, Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press Inc., p. 97-107 11 p. (Methods in Molecular Biology; vol. 1695).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Sphingolipids
Sphingosine
Sphingomyelins
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Aqueous Humor
2017
2 Citations (Scopus)

Aqueous humour dynamics and biometrics in the ageing Chinese eye

Guo, T., Sampathkumar, S., Fan, S., Morris, N., Wang, F. & Toris, C. B., Sep 2017, In : British Journal of Ophthalmology. 101, 9, p. 1290-1296 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Anterior Chamber
Cornea
Venous Pressure
5 Citations (Scopus)

Comparison of aqueous outflow facility measurement by pneumatonography and digital schiøtz tonography

Kazemi, A., McLaren, J. W., Lin, S. C., Toris, C. B., Gulati, V., Moroi, S. E. & Sit, A. J., Jan 1 2017, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 58, 1, p. 204-210 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Intraocular Pressure
Supine Position
Weights and Measures
Equipment and Supplies
Posture
4 Citations (Scopus)

Making Basic Science Studies in Glaucoma More Clinically Relevant: The Need for a Consensus

Toris, C. B., Gelfman, C., Whitlock, A., Sponsel, W. E. & Rowe-Rendleman, C. L., Sep 2017, In : Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 33, 7, p. 501-518 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Glaucoma
Translational Medical Research
Research
Research Personnel
Optic Nerve Diseases
6 Citations (Scopus)

Mechanism of action of selective laser trabeculoplasty and predictors of response

Gulati, V., Fan, S., Gardner, B. J., Havens, S. J., Schaaf, M. T., Neely, D. G. & Toris, C. B., Mar 2017, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 58, 3, p. 1462-1468 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Trabeculectomy
Aqueous Humor
Lasers
Fluorophotometry
Linear Models
2016
5 Citations (Scopus)

Aqueous flow measured by fluorophotometry in the mouse

Toris, C. B., Fan, S., Johnson, T. V., Camras, L. J., Hays, C. L., Liu, H. & Ishimoto, B. M., Jul 2016, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 57, 8, p. 3844-3852 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fluorophotometry
Ketamine
Xylazine
Anesthesia
dorzolamide
1 Citation (Scopus)

A Schlemm’s canal scaffold for the treatment of elevated IOP

Sampathkumar, S., Schieber, A. T. & Toris, C. B., Jul 3 2016, In : Expert Review of Ophthalmology. 11, 4, p. 259-266 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Canals
Scaffolds
Glaucoma
Surgery
Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
11 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of rho kinase inhibitors on intraocular pressure and aqueous humor dynamics in nonhuman primates and rabbits

Toris, C. B., McLaughlin, M. A., Dworak, D. P., Fan, S., Havens, S. J., Zhan, G. L., Horan, N. & Prasanna, G., Jul 1 2016, In : Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 32, 6, p. 355-364 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

rho-Associated Kinases
Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Primates
Rabbits
5 Citations (Scopus)

Prostanoid Receptor Antagonist Effects on Intraocular Pressure, Supported by Ocular Biodisposition Experiments

Woodward, D. F., Wenthur, S. L., Rudebush, T. L., Fan, S. & Toris, C. B., Nov 1 2016, In : Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 32, 9, p. 606-622 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Intraocular Pressure
Prostaglandins
Biological Availability
Rabbits
Haplorhini
7 Citations (Scopus)
Aqueous Humor
Extracellular Matrix
Drainage
Pharmacology
Trabecular Meshwork
2015
11 Citations (Scopus)

A Novel Schlemm's Canal Scaffold: Histologic Observations

Grierson, I., Saheb, H., Kahook, M. Y., Johnstone, M. A., Ahmed, I. I. K., Schieber, A. T. & Toris, C. B., Aug 19 2015, In : Journal of Glaucoma. 24, 6, p. 460-468 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Rabbits
Primates
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Arm
Materials Testing
2 Citations (Scopus)

Aqueous Humor Dynamics and Intraocular Pressure Elevation

Toris, C. B., Jan 1 2015, Medical Diagnosis and Therapy. Elsevier Inc., Vol. 1. p. 47-56 10 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Ocular Hypertension
Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Glaucoma
Exfoliation Syndrome
7 Citations (Scopus)

Continuous non-cell autonomous reprogramming to generate retinal ganglion cells for glaucomatous neuropathy

Parameswaran, S., Dravid, S. M., Teotia, P., Krishnamoorthy, R. R., Qiu, F., Toris, C. B., Morrison, J. & Ahmad, I., Jun 1 2015, In : STEM CELLS. 33, 6, p. 1743-1758 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Retinal Ganglion Cells
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Glaucoma
Ocular Hypertension
Acids
8 Citations (Scopus)

Intraocular pressure–lowering activity of NCX 470, a novel nitric oxide–donating bimatoprost in preclinical models

Impagnatiello, F., Toris, C. B., Batugo, M., Prasanna, G., Borghi, V., Bastia, E., Ongini, E. & Krauss, A. H. P., Jan 1 2015, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 56, 11, p. 6558-6564 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Intraocular Pressure
Ciliary Body
Aqueous Humor
Iris
Rabbits
2014
9 Citations (Scopus)

Daytime and nighttime effects of brimonidine on IOP and aqueous humor dynamics in participants with ocular hypertension

Fan, S., Agrawal, A., Gulati, V., Neely, D. G. & Toris, C. B., Jan 1 2014, In : Journal of Glaucoma. 23, 5, p. 276-281 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ocular Hypertension
Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Fluorophotometry
Placebos
16 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of a Schlemm canal scaffold on collector channel ostia in human anterior segments

Johnstone, M. A., Saheb, H., Ahmed, I. I. K., Samuelson, T. W., Schieber, A. T. & Toris, C. B., Feb 1 2014, In : Experimental Eye Research. 119, p. 70-76 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Trabecular Meshwork
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Tissue Fixation
Fixatives
Ciliary Body
3 Citations (Scopus)

FR-190997, a nonpeptide bradykinin B2-receptor partial agonist, is a potent and efficacious intraocular pressure lowering agent in ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkeys

Sharif, N. A., Katoli, P., Scott, D., Li, L., Kelly, C., Xu, S., Husain, S., Toris, C. B. & Crosson, C., Jun 2014, In : Drug Development Research. 75, 4, p. 211-223 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bradykinin B2 Receptors
Macaca fascicularis
Intraocular Pressure
Prostaglandins
Trabecular Meshwork
17 Citations (Scopus)

Improvement in outflow facility by two novel microinvasive glaucoma surgery implants

Hays, C. L., Gulati, V., Fan, S., Samuelson, T. W., Ahmed, I. I. K. & Toris, C. B., Jan 1 2014, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 55, 3, p. 1893-1900 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Glaucoma
Pressure
Perfusion
Eye Diseases
Dilatation
2013
2 Citations (Scopus)
Trabeculectomy
Solid-State Lasers
Lasers
Steroids
Anterior Chamber
24 Citations (Scopus)

A novel 8-mm Schlemm's canal scaffold reduces outflow resistance in a human anterior segment perfusion model

Gulati, V., Fan, S., Hays, C. L., Samuelson, T. W., Ahmed, I. I. K. & Toris, C. B., Apr 2 2013, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 54, 3, p. 1698-1704 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Intraocular Pressure
Perfusion
Pressure
6 Citations (Scopus)

Current status of unoprostone for the management of glaucoma and the future of its use in the treatment of retinal disease

Harms, N. V. & Toris, C. B., Jan 1 2013, In : Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 14, 1, p. 105-113 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Retinal Diseases
Glaucoma
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Macular Degeneration
Prostaglandins
22 Citations (Scopus)

Molecular biomarkers in glaucoma

Seventh ARVO/Pfizer Ophthalmics Research Institute Conference Working Group, Jan 1 2013, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 54, 1, p. 121-131 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Metabolome
Genomics
Genetic Markers
Glaucoma
Proteomics
2012
38 Citations (Scopus)

A novel schlemm's canal scaffold increases outflow facility in a human anterior segment perfusion model

Camras, L. J., Yuan, F., Fan, S., Samuelson, T. W., Ahmed, I. K., Schieber, A. T. & Toris, C. B., Sep 1 2012, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 53, 10, p. 6115-6121 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Perfusion
Pressure
Trabecular Meshwork
Eye Diseases
Intraocular Pressure
28 Citations (Scopus)

Diurnal and nocturnal variations in aqueous humor dynamics of patients with ocular hypertension undergoing medical therapy

Gulati, V., Fan, S., Zhao, M., Maslonka, M. A., Gangahar, C. & Toris, C. B., Jun 1 2012, In : Archives of Ophthalmology. 130, 6, p. 677-684 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

dorzolamide
latanoprost
Ocular Hypertension
Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
2011
27 Citations (Scopus)

Aqueous humor dynamics during the day and night in healthy mature volunteers

Liu, H., Fan, S., Gulati, V., Camras, L. J., Zhan, G., Ghate, D. A., Camras, C. B. & Toris, C. B., Mar 1 2011, In : Archives of Ophthalmology. 129, 3, p. 269-275 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Healthy Volunteers
Fluorophotometry
Cornea
9 Citations (Scopus)

Aqueous humor dynamics during the day and night in volunteers with ocular hypertension

Fan, S., Hejkal, J. J., Gulati, V., Galata, S., Camras, C. B. & Toris, C. B., Sep 1 2011, In : Archives of Ophthalmology. 129, 9, p. 1162-1166 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ocular Hypertension
Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Volunteers
Fluorophotometry
3 Citations (Scopus)

Assumption constraints of fluorophotometry in human eyes

Gulati, V. & Toris, C. B., Mar 1 2011, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 52, 3, p. 1312-1313 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Ocular Tonometry
Glaucoma Drainage Implants
Fluorophotometry
Trabecular Meshwork
Ocular Hypertension
4 Citations (Scopus)
Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Ocular Hypertension
Glaucoma
Cornea
29 Citations (Scopus)

Effect of PF-04217329 a prodrug of a selective prostaglandin EP 2 agonist on intraocular pressure in preclinical models of glaucoma

Prasanna, G., Carreiro, S., Anderson, S., Gukasyan, H., Sartnurak, S., Younis, H., Gale, D., Xiang, C., Wells, P., Dinh, D., Almaden, C., Fortner, J., Toris, C. B., Niesman, M., Lafontaine, J. & Krauss, A., Sep 1 2011, In : Experimental Eye Research. 93, 3, p. 256-264 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prodrugs
Intraocular Pressure
Glaucoma
Prostaglandins
Prostaglandin Receptors

Foreword

Toris, C. B. & Quigley, H. A., Sep 1 2011, In : Experimental Eye Research. 93, 3, 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorial

61 Citations (Scopus)

Ocular hypotensive activity of BOL-303259-X, a nitric oxide donating Prostaglandin F2α agonist, in preclinical models

Krauss, A. H. P., Impagnatiello, F., Toris, C. B., Gale, D. C., Prasanna, G., Borghi, V., Chiroli, V., Chong, W. K. M., Carreiro, S. T. & Ongini, E., Sep 1 2011, In : Experimental Eye Research. 93, 3, p. 250-255 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

latanoprost
Dinoprost
Nitric Oxide
Intraocular Pressure
Ocular Hypertension

Reflections on the life and career of Carl Camras

Toris, C. B., Gulati, V., Reid, T. & Quigley, H., Sep 1 2011, In : Experimental Eye Research. 93, 3, p. 239-242 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorial

Glaucoma
34 Citations (Scopus)

Regulation of ocular angiogenesis by notch signaling: Implications in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

Ahmad, I., Balasubramanian, S., del Debbio, C. B., Parameswaran, S., Katz, A. R., Toris, C. B. & Fariss, R. N., May 1 2011, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 52, 6, p. 2868-2878 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Choroidal Neovascularization
Macular Degeneration
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Gene Expression
Retinal Vessels
4 Citations (Scopus)

The biology, pathology and therapeutic use of prostaglandins in the eye

Toris, C. B. & Gulati, V., Oct 1 2011, In : Clinical Lipidology. 6, 5, p. 577-591 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Therapeutic Uses
Prostaglandins
Intraocular Pressure
Pathology
Matrix Metalloproteinases
2010
52 Citations (Scopus)

A novel nitric oxide releasing prostaglandin analog, NCX 125, reduces intraocular pressure in rabbit, dog, and primate models of glaucoma

Borghi, V., Bastia, E., Guzzetta, M., Chiroli, V., Toris, C. B., Batugo, M. R., Carreiro, S. T., Chong, W. K. M., Gale, D. C., Kucera, D. J., Jia, L., Prasanna, G., Ongini, E., Krauss, A. H. P. & Impagnatiello, F., Apr 1 2010, In : Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 26, 2, p. 125-131 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

latanoprost
Synthetic Prostaglandins
Intraocular Pressure
Glaucoma
Primates
15 Citations (Scopus)

Aqueous humor dynamics during the day and night in juvenile and adult rabbits

Zhao, M., Hejkal, J. J., Camras, C. B. & Toris, C. B., Jun 1 2010, In : Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 51, 6, p. 3145-3151 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Rabbits
Fluorophotometry
Reading
4 Citations (Scopus)

Aqueous humor dynamics in inbred rhesus monkeys with naturally occurring ocular hypertension

Toris, C. B., Risma, J. M., Gonzales-Martinez, J., McLaughlin, M. A. & Dawson, W. W., Dec 1 2010, In : Experimental Eye Research. 91, 6, p. 860-865 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ocular Hypertension
Aqueous Humor
Macaca mulatta
Intraocular Pressure
Fluorophotometry
5 Citations (Scopus)

Aqueous humor dynamics in pigment dispersion syndrome

Toris, C. B., Haecker, N. R., Teasley, L. A., Zhan, G., Gulati, V. & Camras, C. B., Sep 1 2010, In : Archives of Ophthalmology. 128, 9, p. 1115-1118 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aqueous Humor
Intraocular Pressure
Ocular Hypertension
Venous Pressure
Anterior Chamber